Effects of Nitrogen Fertilization on the Yield and Effective Components of Chrysanthemum boreale M.

질소시비가 산국의 수량과 유효성분에 미치는 영향

  • Lee, Kyung-Dong (Department of Agricultural Chemistry, Division of Applied Life Science, Gyeongsang National University) ;
  • Yang, Min-Suk (Department of Agricultural Chemistry, Division of Applied Life Science, Gyeongsang National University) ;
  • Lee, Young-Bok (Department of Agricultural Chemistry, Division of Applied Life Science, Gyeongsang National University) ;
  • Kim, Pil-Joo (Department of Agricultural Chemistry, Division of Applied Life Science, Gyeongsang National University)
  • Received : 2002.03.18
  • Accepted : 2002.01.08
  • Published : 2002.02.28


Chrysanthemum boreale M. (hereafter, C. boreale M.), a perennial flower, has been historically used as a natural medicine in Korea. With increasing concerns for health-improving foods, the demand for C. boreale M. has become higher than ever. Howevr, the amount of wild C. boreale M. collected from mountainous areas is not enough to cover all demands. The cultivation system and fertilization strategy are required to meet increasing demand on C. boreale M. with a good quality. We investigated the effects of nitrogen application on plant growth and effective components of C. boreale M. to suggest optimum rate of nitrogen fertilization. C. boreale M. was cultivated in a pot scale (1/2000a scale), and nitrogen applied with rate of 0(N0), 50(N50), 100(N100), 150(N150), 200(N200), and $250(N250)kg\;ha^{-1}$. Phosphate and potassium were applied at the same level ($P_2O_5-K_2O=80-80kg\;ha^{-1}$) in all treatments. Maximum yield achieved in 246 and $226kg\;ha^{-1}$ N treatment on the whole plant and the flower part, a valuable part as a herbal medicine, respectively. Proline was the most abundant amino acid in the flower of C boreal M. and the contents of amino acids increased with increasing nitrogen application rate in flower. Nitrogen recovery efficiency was high more than 41% in all nitrogen treatments and increased to 61.8% in nitrogen N100 treatment. From the nitrogen content, the high nitrogen uptake, the low residue of mineral N and the reasonably good apparent fertilizer recovery, it can be inferred that C. boreale M. made efficient use of the available nitrogen. In flower, contents of Cumambrin A. which is a sesquiterpene compound and has the effect of blood-pressure reduction, decreased with increasing nitrogen application. However, the amount of Cumambrin A in flower increased as nitrogen rate increased, because of increasing flower yield. Conclusively, nitrogen fertilization could increase yields and enhance quality. The optimum nitrogen application rate might be on the range of $225{\sim}250kg\;ha^{-1}$ in a mountainous soil.


Supported by : Kyungnam High-technology Industry Foundation


  1. Bensky, D., and G. Andrew. 1986. Chinese herbal medicine. Eastland Press, Seattle, pp. 59
  2. Binzel, M. M., K. D. Hess, R. A. Bressan, and P. M. Gaseguwa. 1998. Intracellular compartment of ions in salt adapted tobacco cells. Plant Physiol. 86: 607-614 https://doi.org/10.1104/pp.86.2.607
  3. Bohnert, H. J., D. E. Nelson, and R. G. Jensen. 1995. Adaptations to environmental stresses, Plant Cell 7: 1099-1111 https://doi.org/10.1105/tpc.7.7.1099
  4. Bryant, J. P., F. S. III Chapin, and D. R. Klein. 1983. Carbon/nutrient balance of boreal plants in relation to verterbrate herbivory. Oikos 40: 357-368 https://doi.org/10.2307/3544308
  5. McCarthy, and R. A. Werner. 1987. Effects of nitrogen fertilization upon the secondary chemistry and nutritional value of quaking aspen (Populus tremuloides Michx.) leaves for the large aspen tortrix (Choristoneura conflictana Walker). Oecologia 73: 513-517 https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00379408
  6. Chang, S. M.. B. Y. Park, and J. Choi. 1997. Effect of N, P and K application rates on the contents of available constituents in the root of Bupleurum falcatum L. Korean J. Soil Scl. & Fert. 23(2): 119-123 (in Korean with English summary)
  7. Choi, Y. J. 1992. Korean traditional herbal plants. Academic press, Seoul, pp. 53 (in Korean)
  8. Flores, H. E. 1991. Changes in polyamine metabolism in response to abiotic stress, In Biochemistry and Physiology of Polyamines in Plants (ed. by R.D. Slocum, H.E. Flores), CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL, pp. 214-215
  9. Hong, Y. G., M. S. Yang, and Y. B. Park. 1999. Effect of cumambrin A treatment on blood pressure in spontaneously hypertenstve rats. Korean J. Pharmacogn. 30: 226-230 (in Korean with English summary)
  10. Jang, D. S., K. H. Park, and M. S. Yang. 1998. Germanolides from flowers of Chrysanthemum boreale $M_{AKINO}$. Korean J. Pharmacogn. 29(2): 67-70
  11. Kim, J. G., K. B. Lee, D. B. Lee, S. B. Lee, and S. J. Kim. 1998. Effect of chicken manure compost application on the growth of vegetables and nutrients utilization in upland soil. Korean J. Soil Sci. & Fert. 31: 177-182
  12. Kimata, H, C. Hiyama, and M. Aiura. 1979. Application of high performance liquid chromatography to the analysis of crude drugs. Chem. Pharm. Bull. 27(8): 1836-1841 https://doi.org/10.1248/cpb.27.1836
  13. Little, T. M., and J. J. Hills. 1978. Agricultural experimentation. Design and analysis. John Wily, Chichester
  14. Munns, R. 1993. Physiological processes limiting plant growth in saline soils: Some dogmas and hypotheses, Plant Cell Environ. 16: 15-24 https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-3040.1993.tb00840.x
  15. Muzika, R. M. 1993. Terpenes and phenolics in response to nitrogen fertilization: a test of the carbon/nutrient balance hypothesis. Chemoecol. 4: 3-7 https://doi.org/10.1007/BF01245890
  16. Nam, S. H., and M. S. Yang. 1995a. Antibacterial activities of extracts from Chrysanthemum boreale M. J. Korean Soc. Agric. Chem. Biotechnol. 38: 269-272 (in Korean with English summary)
  17. Nam, S. H., and M. S. Yang. 1995b. Isolation of cytotoxic substances from Chrysanthemum boreale M. J. Korean Soc. Agric. Chem. Biotechnol. 38: 273-277 (in Konean with English summary)
  18. Park, H., and C. S. Shin. 1973. Mineral nutrition of field-grown rise plant. III Recovery of fertilizer nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium in relation to climatic zone and physical or chemical characteristics of soil profile. Korean J. Soil Scl. & Fert 6: 17-26
  19. Park, G. C., B. S. Kwon, and H. J. Park. 1997. Effect of fertilizer levels on dry root yield in Scutellaria baicalensis Georg cultivated after barley. Korean J. Medicinal Crop Scl.5(4): 314-317(in Korean with English summary)
  20. Park, N. Y., and J.H. Kwon. 1997. Chemical composition of petals of Chrysanthemum spp. J. Food Scl. Nutr. 2: 304-309
  21. RDA (Rural Development Administration, Korea). 1995. Standard investigation methods for Agricultural Experiment. RDA, Suwon. pp. 601 (in Korean)
  22. RDA (Rural Development Administration, Korea). 1999. Handbook of fertilization on crops. RDA, Suwon. pp. 148 (in Korean)
  23. Robbins, M. P., T. E. Evans. and P. Morris. 1996. The effect of plant growth regulators of growth, morphology and condensed tannin accumulation in transformed root cultures of Lotus corniculatus. Plant Cell, Tissue, Organ Culture44:219-227 https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00048527
  24. Sakano, K. 1981. Regulation of aspartatekinase isoenzyme levels In cultured cells of Vinca rosea. Plant Cell Physlol. 14: 1343-1353
  25. Seo, Y. H., N. K. Heo, Y. S. Jung, H. I. Rhee, and H. K. Min. 2000. Effects of NPK fertilizers on antioxidant activity of Corn (Zea mays L.). Korean J. Soil Scl. & Fert. 33(2): 85-91
  26. Sulistyo, J., T. Naotoshi, F. Kazuml, and K. Kuchi. 1988. Production of Natto starter. Nippon Shokuhin Kogyo Gakkaishi 35: 280-281
  27. Tuomi, J., P. Niemela, E. Haukioja, S. Siren, and S. Neuvonen. 1984. Nutrient stress: An explanation for plant anti-herbivore responses to defoliation. Oecologia 61: 208-210 https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00396762
  28. Yang, M. S., K. H. Park. D. S. Jang, S. U. Choi, S. H. Nam, and M. Shiro. 1996. Cumambrin A in Chrysanthemum boreal$M_{AKINO}$ preparation, X-ray crystal structure and $13_{C}$ and $1_{H-NMR}$ study of Cumambrin A. Korean J. Pharmacogn. 27: 207-211