A wheel and axle failure can cause a derailment with its attendant loss of life and property. The service conditions of railway vehicles have become severe in recent years due to a general increase in operating speeds. Damages of railway wheel are a spatting by wheel/rail contact and thermal crack by braking heat etc. One of the main source of damage is a residual stress. therefore it is important to evaluate exactly. A Residual stress of wheel is formed at the process of heat treatment when manufacturing. it is changed by contact stress developed by wheel/rail contact. Distributions of residual stress vary according to a magnitude of wheel load, a magnitude of friction when acceleration and deceleration. The objective of this paper is to estimate the influence of wheel motion on the residual stress distribution in the vicinity of the running surface.