• Kim, Dae-Ik (Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Southern California) ;
  • Shih, Pin Tu (Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Southern California) ;
  • Teh, Fu Yen (Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Southern California)
  • Published : 2003.04.30



  1. Yen, T. F., "Chemical Aspects of Metals In Native Petroleum," In the Role of Trace Metals in Petroleum. Yen, TF. (Ed.), Ann Arbor Science, Ann Arbor, MI (1975).
  2. Speight, J. G., The Desulfurization of Heavy Oils and Residua, Marcel Dekker: New York (1981).
  3. Jellinek, H. H. G., "Degradation of long chain molecules by ultrasonic waves, VIII. rate constants and the cavitation process," J. Polymer Science. 37, 485-497 (1959).
  4. Chen, J. W., Chang, J. A., and Smith, G. V., Sonocatalytic Oxidation In Aqueous Solutions, In Sonochemical Engieering no. 109, Vol. 67, Fogler, H. S. (Ed.) AIChE, New York (1971).
  5. Mason, T J., Lorimer, J. P., Paniwnyk, L., Wright, P. W., and Harris, A. R., "The influence of sonication on the palladiumcatalysed dehydrogenation of tetrahydronaphthalene," J. Catalysis. 147, 1-4 (1994).
  6. Orzechowska, G. E., Poziomek, E. J., Hodge, V. F., and Engelmann, W. H., "Use of sonochemistry in monitoring chlorinated hydrocarbons in water," Environ. Sci. Technol., 29, 1373-1379 (1995).
  7. Lin, 1J R. and Yen, T. F., "An upgrading process through cavitation and surfactant," Energy & Fuels. 7, 111-118 (1993).
  8. Tu, S. P., Kim, D., and Yen, T F., "Decolorization and destruction of metallophthalocyanines in aqueous medium by ultrasound; A feasibility study," J. Environmental Engineering Science, 1, 237-246 (2002).
  9. Kim, D., Shiu, F. 1. Y., and Yen, T F., "Devu1canization of scrap tire through matrix modification and ultrasonication," Energy Sources. Accepted in Aug. (2002).
  10. Shiu, F. J. Y., Yang, I. C. Y., and Yen, T F., "Staged process for composite propellants; Recovery of energetic and metallic fuel," Energy Sources, 19, 833-843 (1997).
  11. Mason, T. J. and Lorimer, J. P., Sonochemistry; Theory, Application, and Use of Ultrasound in Chemistry, John Wiley & Sons, New York (1988).
  12. Agrawal, R. and Wei, J., "Hydrodemetallation of nickel and vanadium porphyrins," Ind. Eng. Chern. Process Des. Dev., 23, 505 -514 (1984).
  13. Chen, H. J. and Massoth, F. E., "Hydrodemetallation of vanadium and nickel porphyrins over sulfied CoMo/AbOS catalyst," Ind. Eng. Chern. Res. 27, 1629-1639 (1988).
  14. Suslick, K. S., Ultrasound; Its Chemical, Physical, and Biological Effects, VCH, New York (1988).
  15. Chen, J. R., The Feasibility Studies of Radical-Induced Dehalogenation Processes; Destruction of Chloroform, PBB, and PCB., Ph.D Dissertation, Univ. of Southern California, California (1988).
  16. Yen, T F., Xu, W. X., and Lee, A. S., "A Feasibility Study of Dechlorination of Chloroform in Water by Ultrasound in the Presence of Hydrogen Peroxide," Environ. Technol., 11, 829-836 (1990).
  17. Makino, K., Mossoba, M. M., and Riesz, P., "Chemical effects of ultrasound on aqueous solution; Formation of hydroxyl radicals and hydrogen atoms," J. Phys. Chem., 87, 1369 -1377 (1983).
  18. Falk, J. E., Porphyrins and Metalloporphyrin, B.B.A. Library, 2, 30-40 (1964).
  19. Mason, T. J., Advances in Sonochemistry, Vol. 2, JAI Press LTD., England (1991).
  20. Henglein, A., "Sonochemistry: Historical Developments and Modem Aspects," Ultrasonics. 25, 6-16 (1987).
  21. Krishna, C. M., Lion, Y., Kondo, T., and Riesz, P., "Thermal Decomposition of Methanol in the Sonolysis of Methanol-water Mixtures; Spin-trapping Evidence for Isotope Exchange Reactions," J. Phys. Chem, 91, 5847-5850 (1987).
  22. Alippi, A., Cataldo, F., and Galbato, A., "Ultrasound Cavitation in Sonochemistry; Decomposition of Carbon Tetrachloride in Aqueous Solution of Potassium Iodide," Ultrasonics, 30(3), 148-151 (1992).
  23. Moroi, Y., Micelles; Theoretical and applied aspects, Plenum Press, New York (1992).
  24. Lin, J. R. and Yen, T. F., "An upgrading process through cavitation and surfactant," Energy & Fuels, 7(1), 111-118 (1993).
  25. Klaning, U. K., Sehested, K., and Holeman, J., "Standard Gibbs Energy of Formation of the Hydroxyl Radicals in Aqueous Solution; Rate Constant for the Reaction $CIO_{2_}\;+\;O_3\;<\;-\;>\;O_{3-}\;+\;CIO_2$, " J. Physical Chemistry, 89, 760 (1985).
  26. Park, J. K. and Yen, T. F., "Ultrasonic Degradation of Policyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon," in Proceedings of the Battele International Symposium on in-situ and on-situ Bioreclamation, San Diego, California, April 24-27 (1995).
  27. Tu, S. P. and Yen, T. F., "The feasibility studies for radical-induced decomposition and demetallation of metalloporphyrins by ultrasonication," Energy & Fuels. 14(6), 1168 -1175 (2000).
  28. Thomas, D. W. and Martell, A. E., "Visible and ultraviolet absorption spectra of metal chelates of para-substituted tetraphenylporphyrins," Arch. Biochem. Biophy., 76, 286- 294 (1958).
  29. Gale, R. J., Spectroelectrochemistry, Theory, and Practice, Ed., Plenum, New York (1965).
  30. Bonnett, R. and Dimsdale, M. J., "The Meso-reactivity of Porphyrins and Related Compounds, Part V. The Meso-oxidation of Metalloporphyrins," J. Chem. Soc., Perkin. Trans. 1, 2540 (1972).
  31. Nahor, G. S., Neta, P., Hambright, P., and Robinson, L. R., "One-electron Oxidation of Nickel Porphyrins; Effect of Structure and Medium on Formation of Nickel (III) Porphyrin or Nickel (II) Porphyrin $\pi$ -radical Cation," J. Phys. Chem., 95, 4415-4418 (1991).
  32. Renner, M. W. and Bucher, J. W., "Cation and Anion Radicals of (5, 15 -dimethyl - 2, 3, 7, 8, 12, 13, 17, 18 - octaethyl - 5H, 15H - porphinato) nickel (II); Comparison of the nickel complexes of porphodimethene and chlorine chromophores," J. Phys. Chem., 99, 8045-8049 (1995).
  33. Seth, J., Palaniappan, V., and Bocian, D. F., "Oxidatin of Nickel (II) Tetraphenylporphyrin Revisited; Characterization of Stable Nickel (II) Complexes at Room Temperture," lnorg. Chem., 34, 2201-2206 (1995).

Cited by

  1. Removal of Nickel and Vanadium from Heavy Oils Using Supercritical Water vol.57, pp.1, 2014,
  2. A Review of the Unconventional Methods Used for the Demetallization of Petroleum Fractions over the Past Decade vol.29, pp.12, 2015,