Assessment on In Vitro Antioxidant Properties of Common Thistle (Cirsium pendulum Fisch.) Plant Parts

  • Chon, Sang-Uk (Callus Co. Ltd., TBI Center, Gwangju Institute of Science and Technology) ;
  • Boo, Hee-Ock (Research Center for Proteineous Materials, Chosun University) ;
  • Lee, Sook-Young (Research Center for Proteineous Materials, Chosun University)
  • Published : 2006.04.01


Antioxidant activity of the extract fractions from leaves, stems, roots and flowers of Cirsium pendulum Fisch. was investigated. The results showed the greatest antioxidant activities in leaves by Rancimat, TBA and DPPH methods. Extracts of common thistle plants dose-dependently increased DPPH free radical scavenging activity, The extract from flowers and its hexane fraction showed the strongest antioxidant activity. HPLC analysis showed that BuOH fraction of the leaves had the highest amount of antioxidant chlorogenic and p-coumaric acids at 5.38 and 9.71 mg $100\;g^{-1}$, respectively. It implies that common thistle plants had potent antioxidant activity, and their activities were differently exhibited depending on plant part and solvent fraction.


  1. Alsaadawi IS, Al-Uqaili JK, Al-Hadithy SM, Alrubeaa AI (1985) Effects gamma irradiation on allelopathic potential of Sorghum bicolor against weeds and nitrification. J. Chem. Ecol. 11:1737-1745
  2. Balakumar T, Vincent VHB, Paliwal K (1993) On the interaction of UV-B radiation (280-315 nm) with water stress in crop plants. Physiol. Plant. 87:217-222
  3. Banwart WL, PM Porter, Granato TC, Hassett JJ (1985) HPLC separation and wavelength area ratios of more than 50 phenolic acids and flavonoids. J. Chem. Ecol. 11 :383-395
  4. Bell AB (1981) Biochemical mechanisms of disease resistence. Annu. Rev. Plant Physiol. 32:21-81
  5. Blosi MS (1958) Antioxidant determinations by use of a stable free radical. Nature 26: 1199-1200
  6. Branen AL (1975) Toxicology and biochemistry of butylateed hydroxyanisole and butylated hydroxytoluene. JAOCS 52:59-63
  7. Cuvelier ME, Richard H, Berset C (1992) Comparison of the anti oxidative activity of some acid-phenols: Structure-activity relationship. Biosci. Biotech. Biochem. 56:324-325
  8. Despande SS, Sathe SK, Salunkhe DK (1984) Chemistry and safety of plant polyphenols. In Nutritional and toxicological aspects of food safety. (Fredman, M. Ed.), Plenum New York. PP.457-495
  9. Frankle EN (1980) Lipid oxidation. A review. Progress in Lipid Research 19: 1-22
  10. Hodgson JM (1968) The nature, ecology and control of Canada thistle. Tech. Bull. No. 1386, Agri. Res. Serve. USDA, USA
  11. Kajimoto G, Nakamura M, Yamaguchi M (1995) Changes in organic acid components of volatile degradation products during oxidation of oil, and effects of organic acid on increased conductivity determined by the Rancimat method. J. Jap. Nutr. Food. 50:223-227
  12. Larson RA (1988) The antioxidants of higher plants. Phytochemistry 27:969-978
  13. Lee BC, Jeong YK, Ryu BH (1997) Antioxidative effect of silymarin and silybin purified from Silybum marianum on oxidation of human low density lipoprotein by macrophages. Kor. J. Appl. Microbiol. Biotechnol. 25:286-292
  14. Lichtenthaler HK (1987) Chlorophylls and carotenoids: pigments of photosynthetic biomembranes, Methods Enzymol. 148:350-382
  15. Naczk M, Shadhidi F (2004) Extraction and analysis of phenolics in food. Chromatography A 1054:95-111
  16. Nicolle C, Cardinault N, Gueux E, Jaffrelo L, Rock E, Mazur E, Amouroux P, Remesy C (2004) Health effect of vegetable-based diet: lettuce consumption improves cholesterol metabolism and antioxidant status in the rat. Clinic. Nutr. 23: 605-614
  17. Niemeyer HM (1988) Hydroxamic acids (4-hydroxy-l,4-benzoxazin-3-ones), defense chemicals in the Gramineae, Phytochemistry 27:3349-3358
  18. Rice-Evans CA, Miller NJ, Paganga G (1996) Structure-antioxidant activity relationships of flavonoids and phenolic acids. Free Radical Biol. Med. 20:933-936
  19. SAS (Statistical Analysis Systems) Institute (2000) SAS/STAT user's guide. Version 7. Electronic Version. Cary, NC, USA
  20. Schuler P (1990) Natural antioxidants exploited commercially. In Food Antioxidants, ed. BJ. F. Hudson, Elsevier Applied Science, London, pp. 99-191
  21. Souri E, Amin GH, Farsam H, Andaji S (2004) The antioxidant activity of some commonly used vegetable s in Iranian diet. Fitoterapia 75:585-588
  22. Stich HF, Rosin MD, Wu CH, Powrie WD (1981) A comparative genoxicity study of chlorogenic acid (3-O-caffeoylquinic acid). Mut. Res. 90:201-212
  23. Szeto YT, Tomlinson B, Benzie IF (2002) Total antioxidant and ascorbic acid content of fresh fruits and vegetables: implications for dietary planning and food preservation. Br. J. Nutr. 87:55-59
  24. Wanasundara PKJPD, Shahidi F, Shukla VKS (1997) Endogenous antioxidants from oil seeds and edible oils. Food Rev. International 13 :225-292
  25. Wanasundara UN, Shahidi F (1994) Canol a extracts as an alternative natural antioxidant for canola oil. J. Ame. Oil Chem. Soc. 71:817-822
  26. Witte VC, Krause GF, Bailey ME (1970) A new extraction method for determining 2-thiobarbituric acid values of pork and beef during storage. J. Food Sci. 35:582-587
  27. Yoshida T, Mori K, Hatono T, Okumura T, Uehara I, Komagoe K, Fujita Y, Okuda T (1989) Studies on inhibition mechanism of antioxidation by tannins and flavonoids. V. Radical-scavenging effects of tannins and related polyphenols on DPPH radical. Chem. Pharm. Bull. 37: 1919-1921