Effect of Soy Isoflavone Supplementation on the Bone Mineral Density and Antioxidant Enzyme Activity in Postmenopausal Women

일부 폐경 후 여성에서 골밀도와 항산화효소 활성에 대한 대두 이소플라본 보충 효과

  • Lee, Haeng-Shin (Nutrition Research Team, Korea Health Industry Development Institute) ;
  • Lee, Da-Hong (Department of Food and Nutrition, Wonkwang University) ;
  • Kim, Mi-Hyun (Department of Food and Nutrition, Kangwon National University) ;
  • Sung, Chung-Ja (Department of Food and Nutrition, Sookmyung Women's University)
  • 이행신 (한국보건산업진흥원 보건영양팀) ;
  • 이다홍 (원광대학교 식품영양학과) ;
  • 김미현 (강원대학교 식품영양학과) ;
  • 승정자 (숙명여자대학교 식품영양학과)
  • Published : 2006.12.31

Abstract

To elucidate the effect of soy isoflavone supplementation on bone mineral density and antioxidant enzyme activity in 60 postmenopausal women residing in Iksan area were recruited. There were 31 participants in the treatment group and 29 in the control group. The treatment group consumed isoflavone extract capsules daily (which contained 90 mg of soy isoflavones) for 12 weeks. The study compared before and after isoflavone intake in the following areas. Physical examination, diet survey, bone mineral density (BMD) and antioxidant enzyme activity (superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), catalase (CAT) and total antioxidant capacity (TA)). The average age of the treatment group was 64.6 years and that of the control group was 66.5 years. There were no significant differences between the two groups in terms of height, weight and body mass index. Both groups maintained a regular diet pattern in terms of their average daily nutrient intake. There were no significant differences between the treatment group (23.3 mg) and the control group (24.0 mg) in terms of daily isoflavone intake based on diet. Isoflavone supplementation of 12 weeks did not resulted in any significant changes in BMD or parameters of antioxidant enzyme activity, implying the necessity of more intensive intervention for a substantial change. In conclusion, this study revealed that antioxidant enzyme activity holds a significant relationship with the bone mineral density in postmenopausal women and further systematic research on dose and period of isoflavone supplementation is needed to clearify the positive effect of isoflavone on BMD and/or blood antioxidant capacity in postmenopausal women.

References

  1. Campbell MJ, Woodside JV, Honour JW, Morton MS, Leathem AJ. Effect of red clover-derived isoflavone supplementation on insulin-like growth factor, lipid and antioxidant status in healthy female volunteers: a pilot study. Eur J Clin Nutr 58(1): 173- 179, 2004 https://doi.org/10.1038/sj.ejcn.1601764
  2. Hutchins AM, Mclver IE, Johnston CS. Hypertensive crisis associated with high dose soy isoflavone supplementation in a post-menopausal women: a case report. BMC Womens Health 24(5): 9, 2005
  3. Tikkanen MJ, Adlercreutz H. Dietary soy-derived isoflavone phytoestrogens. Could they have a role in coronary heart disease prevention? Biochem Pharmacol 60(1): 1-5, 2000 https://doi.org/10.1016/S0006-2952(99)00409-8
  4. Alekel DL, Germain AS, Peterson CT, Hanson KB, Stewart JW, Toda T. Isoflavone-rich soy protein isoate attenuates bone loss in the lumbar spine of perimenopausal women. Am J Clin Nutr 72: 844-852, 2000 https://doi.org/10.1093/ajcn/72.3.844
  5. Mei J, Yeung SS, Kung AW. High density phytoestrogen intake is associated with higher bone mineral density in postmenopausal but not premenopausal women. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 86: 5217-5221, 2001 https://doi.org/10.1210/jc.86.11.5217
  6. Picherit C, Coxam V, Bennetau-Pelissero C, Kati-Coulibaly S, Davicco M, Lebecque P, Barlet J. Daidzein is more efficient than genistein in preventing ovariectomy-induced bone loss in rats. J Nutr 130: 1675-1681, 2000 https://doi.org/10.1093/jn/130.7.1675
  7. Tsuchida K, Mizushima S, Toba M, Soda K. Dietary soybeans intake and bone mineral density among 995 middle-aged women in Yokohama. J Epidemiol 9: 14-19, 1999
  8. Potter SM, Baum JA, Teng H, Stillman RJ, Snad NK. Soy protein and isoflavones: Their effects on blood lipids and bone density in postmenopausal women. Am J Clin Nutr 68: 1375S, 1998
  9. Huang HY, Yang HP, Yang HT, Yang TC, Shieo MJ, Huang SY. One-year soy isoflavone supplementation prevents early postmenopausal bone loss but without a dose-dependent effect. J Nutr Biochem 17(8): 509-517, 2006
  10. Morabito N, Crisafulli A, Vergara C, Gaudio A, Lasco A, Frisina N, D'Anna R, Corrado F, Pizzoleo MA, Cincotta M, Altavilla D, Lentile R, Squadrito F. Effects of genistein and hormone-replacement therapy on bone loss in early postmenopausal women: a randomized double blind placebo-controled study. J Bone Miner Res 17: 1904-1912, 2002 https://doi.org/10.1359/jbmr.2002.17.10.1904
  11. Lee YB, Lee HJ, Kim KS, Lee JY, Nam SY, Cheon SH, Sohn HS. Evaluation of the preventive effect of isoflavone extract on bone loss in ovariectomized rats. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem 68 (5): 1040-1045, 2004
  12. Hsu CS, Shen WW, Hsueo YM, Yeh SL. Soy isoflavone supplementation in postmenopausal women. Effects on plasma lipids, antioxidant enzyme activities and bone density. J Reprod Md 46(3): 221-226, 2001
  13. Harkness LS, Fiedler K, Sehgal AR, Oravec D, Lerner E. Decreased bone resorption with soy isoflavone supplementation in postmenopausal women. J Womens Health 13(9): 1000-1007, 2004
  14. Ozgocmen S, Kaya H, Fadillioglu E, Aydogan R, Yilmaz Z. Role of antioxidant systems, lipid peroxidation, and nitric oxide in postmenopausal osteoporosis. Mol Cell Biochem. Epub ahead of print, 2006
  15. Schurman L, Sedlinsky C, Mangano A, Sen L, Leiderman S, Fernandez G, Theas S, Damilano S, Gurfinkel M, Seilicovich A. Estrogenic status influences nitric oxide-regulated TNF-alpha release from humanperipheral blood monocytes. Exp Clin Endocriol Diabetes 109(6): 340-344, 2001 https://doi.org/10.1055/s-2001-17401
  16. Stacey E, Korkia P, Hukkanen MW, Polak JM, Rutherford OM. Decreased nitric oxide levels and bone turnover in amenorrheic athletes withspinal osteopenia. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 83(9): 3056-3061, 1998 https://doi.org/10.1210/jc.83.9.3056
  17. Lee YS. Effect of Isoflavones on Proliferation and Oxidative Stress of MC3T3-E1 Ostaoblast-like Cells. Korea Soybean Digest 18(1): 35-43, 2001
  18. Wei H, Bowen R, Cai Q, Barnes S, Wang Y. Antioxidant and antipromotional effects of the soy bean isoflavone genistein. Proceedings of the society for Experimental Biology and Medicine 208: 124, 1995
  19. Cai Q Wei H. Effect of dietary genistein on antioxidant enzyme activities in SENCAR mice. Nutrition and Cancer 25: 1, 1996
  20. Oh HY, Kim SS, Chung HY, Yoon S. Isoflavone supplements exert hormonal and antioxidant effects in postmenopausal Korean women with diabetic retinopathy. J Med Food 8(1): 1-7, 2005 https://doi.org/10.1089/jmf.2005.8.1
  21. Franke AA, Hankin JH, Yu MC, Maskarinec G, Low SH, Custer LJ. Isofavones levels in soy foods consumed by multiethnic populations in Singapore and Hawaii. J Agric Food Chem 47: 977, 1999 https://doi.org/10.1021/jf9808832
  22. Lee SK, Lee MJ, Yoon S, Kwon DJ. Estimated isoflavone intake from soy products in Korean middle-aged women. J Korean Soc Food Sci Nutr 29(5): 948-956, 2000
  23. Floh L, Becker R, Brigelius R, Lengfelder E, Otting F. Convenient Assasy for Superoxide Dismutase. CRC Handbook of free Radicals and Antioxidants in Biomedicine. pp.287-293, 1992
  24. Paglia DE, Valentine WN. Studies on the quantitative and qualitative characterization of erythrocyte glutathione peroxidase. J Lab Clin Med 70: 158, 1967
  25. Aebi H. Catalse. In 'Methods of Enzymatic Analysis' Bergmeyer HU (ed.), Chemie, Weinheim, F.R.G., pp.673, 1974
  26. Cao G, Prior RL. Comparison of different analytical methods for assesing total antioxidant capacity of human serum. Clin Chem 44(6): 1309-1315, 1998
  27. Sung CJ, Choi SH, Kim MH, Park MH, Go BS, Kim HK. A Study on Dietary Isoflavone Intake from Soy Food and Urinary Isoflavone Excretion and, Menopausal Symptoms in Korean Women in Rural Areas. Korean Soc of Community Nutri 5(1): 120-129, 2000
  28. Ho SC. Soy consumption and potential benefits for bone and heart health in the Chinese population. 8th Asian Congress of Nutrition. Aug 29-Sep 2, Seoul, Korea, 1999
  29. Adlercreutz H, Honjo H, Higashi A, Fotsis T, Hamalanen E, Hasegawa T, Okawa H. Urinary excretion of lignans and isoflavonoid Japanese diet. Am J Clin Nutr 54: 1093-1100, 1991
  30. Choi Y, Yoon S, Lee MJ, Lee SK, Lee BS. Dose Respone Relationship of isoflavone supplementation on plasma Lipid profiles and Total Antioxidant Status inperimenopausal and postmenopausal women. The Korean Nutrition Society 34(3): 322- 329, 2001