Effects of electromagnetic stimulation on neurogenesis and neuronal proliferation in rat hippocampal slice culture

실험 쥐 해마조직배양에서 전자기 자극이 신경조직발생 및 증식에 미치는 영향

  • Kim, Deok-Soo (Department of Pediatrics, Kangbuk Samsung Hospital, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine) ;
  • Choi, Eung Sang (Department of Pediatrics, College of Medicine, Chung-Ang University) ;
  • Chae, Soo Ahn (Department of Pediatrics, College of Medicine, Chung-Ang University)
  • 김덕수 (성균관대학교 의과대학 강북삼성병원 소아과) ;
  • 최응상 (중앙대학교 의과대학 소아과학교실) ;
  • 채수안 (중앙대학교 의과대학 소아과학교실)
  • Received : 2005.11.11
  • Accepted : 2006.01.13
  • Published : 2006.05.15

Abstract

Purpose : Transcranial electromagnetic stimulation(TMS) is a noninvasive method which stimulates the central nervous system through pulsed magnetic fields without direct effect on the neurons. Although the neurobiologic mechanisms of magnetic stimulation are unknown, the effects on the brain are variable according to the diverse stimulation protocols. This study aims to observe the effect of the magnetic stimulation with two different stimulation methods on the cultured hippocampal slices. Methods : We obtained brains from 8-days-old Spague-Dawley rats and dissected the hippocampal tissue under the microscope. Then we chopped the tissue into 450 µm thickness slices and cultured the hippocampal tissue by Stoppini's method. We divided the inserts, which contained five healthy cultured hippocampal slices respectively, into magnetic stimulation groups and a control group. To compare the different effects according to the frequency of magnetic stimulation, stimulation was done every three days from five days in vitro at 0.67 Hz in the low stimulation group and at 50 Hz in the high stimulation group. After N-methyl-D-aspartate exposure to the hippocampal slices at 14 days in vitro, magnetic stimulation was done every three days in one and was not done in another group. To evaluate the neuronal activity after magnetic stimulation, the $NeuN/{\beta}$-actin ratio was calculated after western blotting in each group. Results : The expression of NeuN in the magnetic stimulation group was stronger than that of the control group, especially in the high frequency stimulation group. After N-methyl-D-aspartate exposure to hippocampal slices, the expression of NeuN in the magnetic stimulation group was similar to that of the control group, whereas the expression in the magnetic non-stimulation group was lower than that of the control group. Conclusion : We suggest that magnetic stimulation increases the neuronal activity in cultured hippocamal slices, in proportion to the stimulating frequency, and has a neuroprotective effect on neuronal damage.

목 적 : 경뇌 전자기 자극법은 변조 자기장을 이용하여 뇌세포에 대한 직접적인 영향을 주지 않으면서 중추 신경계를 자극할 수 있는 비침습적인 방법이다. 이전의 연구들은 대부분 생체 동물을 대상으로 수행되어져 왔으며 배양 조직에서의 연구는 별로 이루어진 바 없다. 이에 본 연구에서는 배양된 해마 절편에서 다른 주파수의 전자기 자극이 신경원에 미치는 영향과 약물에 의한 세포 손상 후 전자기 자극의 세포보호효과 여부에 대해 알아보고자 하였다. 방 법 : 생후 8일된 실험쥐의 대뇌를 적출하여 dissection microscope 하에서 양쪽 해마 부위를 분리하고 tissue chopper를 이용하여 $450{\mu}M$ 두께로 절편을 만든 후 Stoppini가 고안한 방법대로 배양을 시행하였다. 각각 5개의 건강한 해마 절편이 포함된 inserts를 선택하고, 전자기 자극군에 대해 0.67 Hz와 50 Hz의 주파수로 각각 배양 5일부터 3일 간격으로 6차례 전자기 자극을 가하였다. 또한, 배양 제 14일에 inserts 2개에 $100{\mu}M$ NMDA에 노출시키고 3일 후부터 3일 간격으로 insert 1개에 전자기 자극을 3차례 시행하였고 다른 1개의 insert와 대조군에는 자극을 가하지 않았다. 결 과 : 전자기 자극 후 신경원의 활성도를 알아보기 위해 NeuN 단백 발현을 western blotting을 이용하여 측정한 후 ${\beta}$-actin 단백 발현과의 비를 얻어 각 군에서 비교 분석하였다. 대조군($1.01{\pm}0.27$)에 비해 전자기 자극군에서 NeuN의 발현이 증가되어 있었으며, 특히 저주파 자극군($1.12{\pm}0.14$)에서보다 고주파 자극군($1.27{\pm}0.17$)에서 현저하였고 고주파 자극군에서는 대조군에 비해 통계적으로 유의한 증가를 보였다(P<0.05). 또한, NMDA 노출 후 실험군(전자기 자극군 : $1.15{\pm}0.27$, 전자기 비자극군 : $0.92{\pm}0.09$)에서 대조군($1.26{\pm}0.04$)에 비해 NeuN 발현이 감소되었으나 전자기 비자극군에서 더 많이 감소한 것을 알 수 있었다. 결 론 : 배양된 해마조직의 신경세포에 대한 전자기 자극은 저주파 자극군에 비해 고주파 자극군에서 대조군보다 통계적으로 유의한 수준의 NeuN 발현의 증가를 관찰할 수 있었고, NMDA 노출 후 전자기 자극을 가한 군에서 대조군보다 NeuN 발현 감소가 관찰되기는 하였으나 고주파 자극군에서는 통계적으로 유의하지 않은 정도였던 것으로 보아 전자기 자극이 신경원 활성을 증가시켜 신경세포의 발생 및 증식을 유도하며 세포 손상에 대한 신경보호효과도 보인다는 것을 알 수 있었다. 따라서 전자기 자극은 여러 신경 질환에 있어서 치료적 역할을 할 수 있는 가능성이 있다고 사료된다.

Acknowledgement

Supported by : 중앙대학교

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