Indoor Emission Characteristics of Liquid Household Products using Purge - and - Trap Method

  • Kwon, Ki-Dong (Department of Indoor Environment, National Institute of Environment Research) ;
  • Jo, Wan-Kuen (Department of Environmental Engineering, Kyungpook National University)
  • Published : 2007.12.31


Since the emissions composition from the household products have potentially been associated with health risks for building occupants, the chemical composition emitted from the products should be surveyed. The current study identified the emission composition for 42 liquid household products, using a purge-and-trap method. This evaluation was done by classifying the household products into five product classes (deodorizers, household cleaners, color removers, pesticides, and polishes). Nineteen compounds were chosen on the basis of selection criteria. The quality control program for purge-and-trap and analytical systems included tests of laboratory blank Tenax traps and blank water samples, and the determination of calibration equation, measurement precision, method detection limit (MDL), and recovery. The number of chemicals varied according to the product categories, ranging from 4 for the product category of bleaches to 12 for the product categories of air fresheners and nail color removers. For all product categories, the emission composition and concentrations varied broadly according to product. It is noteworthy that most household products emit limonene: 19 of 25 cleaning products; 5 of 6 deodorizers; 1 of 3 pesticides; 3 of 3 color removers; and 4 of 5 polishes. It was suggested that the use of household products sold in Korea could elevate the formation of secondary toxic pollutants in indoor environments, by the reaction of limonene with ozone, which entered indoor environments or might be generated by indoor sources such as electronic air cleaning devices and copying machines.


  1. Cox, S., Little, J., and Hodgson, A., 'Predicting the emission rates of volatile compounds from vinyl flooring,' Environmental Science and Technology, 36, 709-714 (2002)
  2. Wilke, O., Jann, O., and Brödner, D., 'VOC- and SVOCemissions from adhesives, floor coverings and complete floor structures,' Indoor Air, 14, Suppl. 8, 98-107 (2004)
  3. Sack, T. M., Steele, D. H., Hammerstrom, K., and Remmers, J., 'A survey of household products for volatile organic compounds,' Atmospheric Environment, 26A, 1063-1070 (1992)
  4. Nazaroff, W. W., and Weschler, C. J., 'Cleaning products and air fresheners: exposure to primary and secondary air pollutants,' Atmospheric Environment, 38, 2841-2865 (2004)
  5. Olson, W., Vesley, D., Bode, M., Dubbel, P., and Bauer, T., 'Hard surface cleaning performance of six alternative household cleaners under laboratory conditions,' Journal of Environmental Health, 56, 27-31 (1994)
  6. Rusin, P., Orosz-Coughlin, P. and Gerba, C., 'Reduction of faecal coliform, coliform and heterotrophic plate count bactria in the household kitchen and bathroom by disinfection wih hypochlorite cleaners,' Journal of Applied Microbiology, 85, 819-828 (1998)
  7. Nilsen, S. K., Dahl, I., Jorgensen, O., and Schneider, T., 'Micro-fiber and ultra-micro-fiber cloths, their physical characteristics, cleaning effect, abrasion on surfaces, friction, and wear resistance,' Building and Environment, 37, 1373-1378 (2002)
  8. Tucker, W. G., Volatile organic compounds, In: Spengler, J., Samet, J.M., McCarthy, J.F. (Eds.), Indoor air quality handbook, McGraw-Hill, New York (2000)
  9. Edwards, R. D., Schweizer, C., Jantunen, M., Lai, H. K., Bayer-Oglesby, L., Katsouyanni, K., Nieuwenhuijsen, M., Saarela, K., Sram, R., and Künzli, N., 'Personal exposures to VOCs in the upper end of the distribution-relationships to indoor, outdoor and workplace concentrations,' Atmospheric Environment, 39, 2299-2307 (2005)
  10. Zuraimi, M. S., Roulet, C. A., Tham, K. W., Sekhar, S. C., David Cheong, K. W., Wong, N. H., and Lee, K. H., 'A comparative study of VOCs in Singapore and European office buildings,' Building and Environment, 41, 316-329 (2006)
  11. Molhave, L., Bach, B., and Pedersen, O., Human reactions during controlled exposures to low concentrations of organic gases and vapours known as normal indoor air pollutants, In Berglund B., Lindvall T., Sundell, J. (Eds.), Indoor Air, Vol. 3, Sensory and Hyper-reactivity Reactions to Sick Buildings, Swedish Council for Building Research, Stockholm, pp. 431-436 (1984)
  12. Wolkoff, P., Schneider, T., Kildeso, J., Degerth, R., Jaroszewski, M. and Schunk, H., 'Risk in cleaning: chemical and physical exposure,' The Science of the Total Environment, 215, 135-156 (1998)
  13. Weschler, C. J., and Shields, H. C., Indoor ozone/terpene reactions as a source of indoor particles, Atmospheric Environment, 33, 2301-2312 (1999)
  14. Finlayson-Pitts, B. J., and Pitts Jr., J. N., Chemistry of the Upper and Lower Atmosphere, Academic Press, Orlando (2000)
  15. Atkinson, R., and Arey, J., 'Gas-phase tropospheric chemistry of biogenic volatile organic compounds: a review,' Atmospheric Environment, 37 (suppl. 2), 197-219 (2003)
  16. Girman, J. R., Hodgson, A. T., and Wind, M. L., 'Considerations in evaluating emissions from consumer products,' Atmospheric Environment, 21, 315-320 (1987)
  17. California Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment, 'Proposition 65 Status Report Safe Harbor Levels: No Significant Risk Levels for Carcinogens and Maximum Allowable Dose Levels for Chemicals Causing Reproductive Toxicity,' http://www. prop65/pdf/june2003StatusReport.pdf. (2003)
  18. Wallace, L. A., Pellizzari, E., Leaderer, B., Zelon, H., and Sheldon, L., 'Emissions of volatile organic compounds from building materials and consumer products,' Atmospheric Environment, 21, 385-393 (1987)
  19. Zhu, J., Cao, X. L., and Beauchamp, R., 'Determination of 2-butoxyethanol emissions from selected consumer products and its application in assessment of inhalation exposure associated with cleaning tasks,' Environmental International, 26, 589-597 (2001)
  20. Knudsen, H. N., Kjaer, U. D., Nielson, P. A., and Wolkoff, P., 'Sensory and chemical characterization of VOC emissions from building products; impact of concentration and air velocity,' Atmospheric Environment, 33, 1217-1230 (1999)
  21. Government of Canada, The Second Priority Substances List, Canada Gazette, Part I, December 16 (1995)
  22. Wainman, T., Zhang, J. F., Weschler, C. J., and Lioy, P. J., 'Ozone limonene in indoor air: a source of submicron particle exposure,' Environmental Health Perspectives, 108, 1139-1145 (2000)
  23. Liu, X., Mason, M., Krebs, K., and Sparks, L., 'Full-scale chamber investigation and simulation of AF emissions in the presence of ozone,' Environmental and Science Technology, 38, 2802-2812 (2004)
  24. Destallats, H., Lunden, M. M., Singer, B. C., Coleman, B. K., Dodgson, A. T., Weschler, C. J., and Nazaroff, W.W., 'Indoor secondary pollutants from household product emissions in the presence of ozone: A bench-scale chamber study,' Environmental Science and Technology, 40, 4421-4428 (2006)
  25. Singer, B. C., Destaillats, H., Hodgson, A. T., and Nazaroff, W. W., 'Cleaning products and air fresheners: emissions and resulting concentrations of glycol ethers and terpenoids,' Indoor Air, 16, 179-191 (2006)
  26. Singer, B. C., Coleman, B. K., Destaillats, H., Hodgson, A. T., Lunden, M. M., Weschler, C. J., and Nazaroff, W. W., 'Indoor secondary pollutants from cleaning product and air freshener use in the presence of ozone,' Atmospheric Environment, 40, 6696-6710 (2006)

Cited by

  1. Emission characteristics of VOCs emitted from consumer and commercial products and their ozone formation potential vol.22, pp.12, 2015,
  2. A comparison of fragrance ingredients in green and nongreen detergents vol.18, pp.2, 2017,