Intakes of Energy and Nutrients and Risk of Breast Cancer - Case-Control Study in Daegu.Gyeongbuk Area, Korea -

영양소 섭취 수준과 유방암 위험 - 대구.경북지역 환자-대조군 연구 -

  • Lee, Eun-Ju (Department of Food Science and Nutrition, Center for Beautiful Aging, Kyungpook National University) ;
  • Lee, Won-Kee (Health Promotion Research Center, Kyungpook National University Hospital) ;
  • Suh, Su-Won (Korea Nutrition Team, Kyungpook National University Hospital) ;
  • Suh, Bo-Hyun (Department of Food Science and Nutrition, Center for Beautiful Aging, Kyungpook National University) ;
  • Lee, Hye-Sung (Department of Food Science and Nutrition, Center for Beautiful Aging, Kyungpook National University)
  • 이은주 (경북대학교 식품영양학과, 경북대학교 장수생활과학연구소) ;
  • 이원기 (경북대학교병원 건강증진연구소) ;
  • 서수원 (경북대학교병원 영양팀) ;
  • 서보현 (경북대학교 식품영양학과, 경북대학교 장수생활과학연구소) ;
  • 이혜성 (경북대학교 식품영양학과, 경북대학교 장수생활과학연구소)
  • Published : 2008.12.31

Abstract

This study was performed to evaluate the effect of nutrient intake levels on the relative risk of breast cancer in the Daegu and Gyeongbuk area. The case subjects were 103 patients newly diagnosed as breast cancer at Kyungpook National University Hospital. The control subjects were 159 healthy women without breast cancer-related disease in the same community selected by frequency matching of age and menopausal status. The survey was administered by individual interviews by trained dietitians using semiquantitative food frequency questionnaires. The odds ratios were determined by using unconditional logistic regression after adjusting for the confounding factors found in the analysis of general characteristics of the subjects. In overall, it has been found that high consumptions of energy and carbohydrates significantly raised the relative risk of breast cancer, and that high intakes of total fat, plant fat, dietary fiber, all kinds of fatty acids, vitamin E and calcium significantly lowered the risk of breast cancer. The results of the study suggest that the possible protective factors to the breast cancer risk include a higher intakes of total fat, especially plant fat, dietary fiber, and micronutrients such as vitamin E, folic acid, calcium, phosphorus and potassium. On the other hand, high intakes of energy and carbohydrate appeared to be the risk factors.

본 연구는 대구 경북지역의 유방암 환자와 대조군을 대상으로 열량 및 영양소 섭취수준에 따른 유방암 발생의 상대 위험도를 분석하였다. 조사 대상자는 경북대학교 병원에서 유방암 진단을 처음 받고 입원한 103명의 유방암 환자와 유방암과 관련된 질환 및 전신 질환이 없으면서 연령(5세 내의 차이) 및 폐경 상태가 동일한 사람들을 대상으로 빈도 짝짓기를 통하여 선정한 159명의 지역사회 대조군이었다. 이들의 반정량적 식품섭취 빈도조사 결과를 분석하여 영양 섭취량을 산출하였고, 일반 특성에 대한 분석 결과에서 환자군과 대조군간 유의한 차이를 보인 요인들을 혼란변수로 통제한 후 열량 및 영양섭취 수준에 따른 상대 위험도를 분석하였다. 전체적으로 높은 BMI와 열량과 당질의 높은 섭취 수준은 유방암 발생의 상대적 위험을 유의하게 높이는 것으로 나타났고, 총 지방, 식이섬유, 포화지방산, 단일불포화지방산, 다불포화지방산, n-3 지방산, n-6 지방산, 비타민 E, 칼슘은 섭취수준이 높을수록 위험도가 유의하게 낮아지는 것으로 나타났다. 폐경 전 여성에서는 당질의 섭취 수준이 높을 때 유방암 위험이 유의하게 높고, 총지방, 식이섬유, 포화지방산, 단일불포화지방산, 다불포화지방산, n-6 지방산, 비타민 E, 엽산, 칼슘, 인, 칼륨의 섭취 수준이 높을 때 위험도가 유의하게 낮은 것으로 나타났다. 폐경 후 여성에서는 총지방, 콜레스테롤, 다불포화지방산, n-6 지방산의 섭취 수준이 높을 때 유방암 위험도가 유의하게 낮은 것으로 나타났다. 특히 지방의 경우 식물성 급원의 섭취 수준이 높을 때 유방암의 위험이 유의하게 감소되는 것으로 나타났다. 이상의 결과에서 대구 경북지역에서 유방암 발생 위험을 높일 가능성이 있는 영양섭취상태는 열량과 당질의 높은 섭취이며, 한편 유방암의 위험을 낮출 가능성이 있는 영양섭취 상태는 높은 지방의 섭취로 나타났다. 특히 지방의 경우 식물성 급원의 섭취가 높을 때 위험이 낮아지는 것으로 나타났다. 이는 지방 섭취량과 유방암 위험도 사이에 정의 상관성을 보고한 일부 국외의 연구 결과와는 상반되는 결과이며 그 원인으로는 한국인의 경우 식물성 지방 섭취의 비율이 서구인에 비해 상대적으로 높기 때문인 것으로 추정된다. 유방암의 위험을 낮출 가능성이 있는 미량 영양소로는 비타민 중에는 E와 엽산, 무기질로서는 칼슘, 인 그리고 칼륨으로 나타났다. 본 연구결과의 제한점으로서 조사 사례수가 적다는점을 들 수 있으므로 선행연구들의 결과와 상반된 결과를 보인 지방섭취와 유방암 위험과의 관련성에 대해서는 향후보다 많은 사례를 대상으로 한 조사 연구를 통해 재확인할 필요가 있다고 보며, 본 연구의 결과는 지역민의 유방암 예방을 위한 영양교육 자료의 일부로서 활용될 수 있다고 본다.

Keywords

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