Evaluation of Volatile Compounds Isolated from Pork Loin (Longissimus dorsi) as Affected by Fiber Type of Solid-phase Microextraction (SPME), Preheating and Storage Time

  • Park, Sung-Yong (Department of Animal Science and Biotechnology Research Institute, Chonnam National University) ;
  • Yoon, Young-Mo (Department of Food Science, Nutrition, and Health Promotion, Mississippi State University) ;
  • Schilling, M. Wes (Department of Food Science, Nutrition, and Health Promotion, Mississippi State University) ;
  • Chin, Koo-Bok (Department of Animal Science and Biotechnology Research Institute, Chonnam National University)
  • Published : 2009.10.31


This study was conducted to investigate the effects of heating, fiber type used in solid-phase microextraction (SPME, two phase vs three phase) and storage time on the volatile compounds of porcine M. longissimus dorsi (LD). Volatile compounds were measured using a gas chromatography and mass spectrometry (GC/MS) with a quadrupole mass analyzer. Among the volatile compounds identified, aldehydes (49.33%), alcohols (24.63%) and ketones (9.85%) were higher in pre-heated loins ($100^{\circ}C$/30 min), whereas, alcohols (34.33%), hydrocarbons (22.84%) and ketones (16.88%) were higher in non-heated loins. Heating of loins induced the formation of various volatile compounds such as aldehydes (hexanal) and alcohols. The total contents of hydrocarbons, alcohols, and carboxylic acids were higher in two phase fibers, whereas those of esters tended to be higher in three-phase fibers (p<0.05). Most volatile compounds increased (p<0.05) with increased storage time. Thus, the analysis of volatile compounds were affected by the fiber type, while heating and refrigerated storage of pork M. longissimus dorsi increased the volatile compounds derived from lipid oxidation and amino acid catabolism, respectively.


  1. Ahn, D. U., Jo, C., and Olson, D. G. (1999) Volatile profiles of raw and cooked turkey thigh as affected by purge temperature and holding time before purge. J. Food Sci. 64, 230-233
  2. Ardo, Y. (2006) Flavour formation by amino acid catabolism. Biotechnol. Adv. 24, 238-242
  3. Beltran, E., Pla, R., Yuste, J., and Mor-Mur, M. (2003) Lipid oxidation of pressurized and cooked chicken: role of sodium chloride and mechanical processing on TBARS and hexanal values. Meat Sci. 64, 19-25
  4. Brunton, N. P., Cronin, D. A., and Monahan, F. J. (2001) The effects of temperature and pressure on the performance of Carboxen/PDMS fibres during solid phase microextraction (SPME) of headspace volatiles from cooked and raw turkey breast. Flavour Fragr. J. 16, 294-302
  5. Estevez, M., Morcuende, D., Ventanas, S., and Cava, R. (2003) Analysis of volatiles in meat from Iberian pigs and leas pigs after refrigeration and cooking by using SPME-GCMS. J. Agr. Food Chem. 51, 3429-3435
  6. Garcia-Esteban, M., Ansorena, D., Astiasaran, I., and Ruiz, J. (2004) Study of the effect of different fiber coatings and extraction conditions on dry cured ham volatile compounds extracted by solid-phase microextraction (SPME). Talanta 64, 458-466
  7. Gianelli, M. P., Flores, M., and Toldra, F. (2002) Optimisation of solid phase microextraction (SPME) for the analysis of volatile compounds in dry-cured ham. J. Sci. Food Agr. 82, 1703-1709
  8. Machiels, D. and Istasse, L. (2003) Evaluation of two commercial solid-phase microextraction fibres for the analysis of target aroma compounds in cooked beef meat. Talanta 61, 529-537
  9. Montel, M. C., Masson, F., and Talon, R. (1998) Bacterial role in flavour development. Meat Sci. 49, S111-S123
  10. Morcuende, D., Estevez, M., Ruiz, J., and Cava, R. (2003) Oxidative and lipolytic deterioration of different muscles from free-range reared Iberian pigs under refrigerated storage. Meat Sci. 65, 1157-1164
  11. Mottram, D. S. (1998) Flavour formation in meat and meat products: a review. Food Chem. 62, 415-424
  12. Park, S. Y., Kim, Y. J., Lee, H. C., Yoo, S. S., Shim, J. H., and Chin, K. B. (2008). Effects of pork meat cut and packaging type on lipid oxidation and oxidative products during refrigerated storage (8${^{\circ}C}$). J. Food Sci. 73, C127-C134
  13. Poligne, I., Collignan, A., and Trystram, G. (2002) Effects of salting, drying, cooking, and smoking operations on volatile compound formation and color patterns in pork. J. Food Sci. 67, 2976-2986
  14. Ruiz, J., Cava, R., Ventanas, J., and Jensen, M. T. (1998) Headspace solid phase microextraction for the analysis of volatiles in a meat product: dry-cured Iberian ham. J. Agr. Food Chem. 46, 4688-4694
  15. Sanches-Silva, A., Rodriguez-Bernaldo de Quiros, A., Lopez- Hernandez, J., and Paseiro-Losada, P. (2004) Determination of hexanal as indicator of the lipidic oxidation state in potato crisps using gas chromatography and high-performance liquid chromatography. J. Chromatogr. A 1046, 75-81
  16. Stephen Elmore, J., Mottram, D. S., and Hierro, E. (2000) Two-fibre solid-phase microextraction combined with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry for the analysis of volatile aroma compounds in cooked pork. J. Chromatogr. A 905, 233-240
  17. Urbach, G. (1995) Contribution of lactic acid bacteria to flavour compound formation in dairy products. Int. Dairy J. 5, 877-903

Cited by

  1. Evaluation of pre-rigor injection of beef with proteases on cooked meat volatile profile after 1day and 21days post-mortem storage vol.92, pp.4, 2012,
  2. Optimization of headspace solid phase microextraction (HS-SPME) for gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC–MS) analysis of aroma compounds in cooked beef using response surface methodology vol.111, 2013,
  3. Effect of Fresh Garlic on Lipid Oxidation and Microbiological Changes of Pork Patties during Refrigerated Storage vol.34, pp.5, 2014,