Supercritical Fluid Extraction of Volatile Components from Strawberry

딸기의 휘발성 향기성분의 초임계 유체 추출

  • Published : 2009.12.31

Abstract

In order to optimize the supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) conditions of volatile components from the strawberry, we conducted an evaluation of the sample preparation and SFE operating conditions. The analysis of the volatile components extracted by a variety of sample preparation protocols led to the identification of 30, 26, 30, and 34 volatile components in fresh, freeze-dried, 30% celite and 70% celite treatments, respectively. The 70% celite treatment was the most effective in extracting the volatile components from strawberry via SFE. Analysis of the volatile components extracted by a variety of SFE operating conditions yielded identifications of 34, 35, 34, and 35 volatile components at 3,000 psi (40, $50^{\circ}C$) and 6,000 psi (40, $50^{\circ}C$), respectively. The extraction yield of alcohols and acids, and the total volatile component contents, were highest under conditions of 3,000 psi and $55^{\circ}C$. Volatile components from the strawberry were extracted via SFE, simultaneous steam distillation and extraction (SDE), and solvent extraction (SE). The analysis of the volatile components extracted via different extraction methods resulted in the identification of 56, 34, and 32 volatile components in the SDE, SFE, and SE extracts, respectively. The total volatile component contents identified in the SDE, SFE, and SE extracts were $20.268{\pm}1.144$, $21.627{\pm}1.215$ and $2.476{\pm}0.177\;mg/kg$, respectively. The SFE extract evidenced higher contents of sweet flavors such as 2-methylbutanoic acid, 2-methylpropanoic acid, and hexanoic acid than the SDE and SE extracts. SFE proved to be the most appropriate method for the extraction of fresh volatile components from the strawberry.

References

  1. Reineccius GA. Flavour-isolation techniques. pp. 409-414. In: Flavours and Fragrances: Chemistry, Bioprocessing, and Sustainability. Berger RG (ed). Springer-Verlag, Berlin, Germany (2007)
  2. Yun KS, Hong JH, Choi YH. Characteristics of Elsholtzia splendens extracts on simultaneous steam distillation extraction conditions. Korean J. Food Preserv. 13: 623-628 (2006)
  3. Lee JG, Jang HJ, Kwag JJ, Lee DW. Comparison of the volatile components of Korean ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) by different extraction methods. Korean J. Food Nutr. 13: 66-70 (2000)
  4. Arthur CL, Killam LM, Buchholz KD, Pawliszyn J, Berg JR. Automation and optimization of solid-phase microextraction. Anal. Chem. 64: 1960-1966 (1992) https://doi.org/10.1021/ac00041a034
  5. Louch D, Motlagh S, Pawliszyn J. Liquid-coated fused silica fibers. Anal. Chem. 64: 1187-1199 (1992) https://doi.org/10.1021/ac00034a020
  6. Choi YH, Kim J, Yoo KP. Selective extraction of ephedrine from Ephedra sinica using mixture of CO2 diethylamine and methanol. Chromatographia 50: 673-679 (1999) https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02497302
  7. Choi YH, Ryu JH, Yoo KP, Chang YS, Kim J. Supercritical carbon dioxide extraction of podophyllotoxin from Dysosma pleinatha roots. Planta Med. 64: 482-483 (1998) https://doi.org/10.1055/s-2006-957493
  8. Lucien FP, Foster NR. Solubilities of solid mixtures in supercritical carbon dioxide: A review. J. Supercrit. Fluid. 17: 111-134 (2000) https://doi.org/10.1016/S0896-8446(99)00048-0
  9. Hubert P, Vitzthum OG. Fluid extraction of hop, spices, and tobacco with supercritical gases. Angew. Chem. Int. Edit. 17: 710-715 (1978) https://doi.org/10.1002/anie.197807101
  10. Lee JM, Kim SK, Lee GD. Monitoring on alcohol fermentation characteristics of strawberry. J. Korean Soc. Food Sci. Nutr. 32: 679-683 (2003) https://doi.org/10.3746/jkfn.2003.32.5.679
  11. Bartley J, Foley P. Supercritical fluid extraction of Australiangrown ginger (Zingiber officinale). J. Sci. Food. Agr. 66: 365-371 (1994) https://doi.org/10.1002/jsfa.2740660314
  12. Schultz TH, Flath RA, Mon TR, Eggling SB, Teranishi R. Isolation of volatile components from a model system. J. Agr. Food Chem. 25: 446-449 (1977) https://doi.org/10.1021/jf60211a038
  13. Shashirekha MN, Baskaran R, Rao LJ, Vijayalakshmi MR, Rajarathnam S. Influence of processing conditions on flavour compounds of custard apple (Annona squamosa L.). LWT. -Food Sci. Technol. 41: 236-243 (2008) https://doi.org/10.1016/j.lwt.2007.03.005
  14. Pyysalo T, Suihko M, Honaknen E. Odour thresholds of the major volatiles identified in cloudberry (Rubus chamaemous L.) and arctic bramble (Rubus articus L.). LWT. -Food Sci. Technol. 10: 36-40 (1977)
  15. Schreier P. Quantitative composition of volatile constituents in cultivated strawberries Fragaria auanana CV., Senga sengana, Senga litessa, and Senga gourmella. J. Sci. Food Agr. 31: 487-492 (1980) https://doi.org/10.1002/jsfa.2740310511
  16. Drinck P, De Pooter HL, Willaert GA, Schamp NM. Flavor quality of cultivated strawberries: The role of the sulfur compounds. J. Agr. Food Chem. 29: 316-321 (1981) https://doi.org/10.1021/jf00104a024
  17. Hirivi T. Mass fragmentographic and sensory analyses in the evaluation of the aroma of some strawberry varieties. LWT. - Food Sci. Technol. 16: 157-164 (1983)
  18. Ho CT, Sheen LY, Wu P, Kuo MC, Hartman TG, Rosen RT. Glycosidically bound aroma compounds in pineapple and peach. pp. 77-80. In: Flavour Science and Technology. Bessiere Y, Thomas AF (eds). Wiley, Chichester, UK (1990)
  19. Lehotay SJ. Supercritical fluid extraction of pesticides in foods. J. Chromatogr. A 785: 289-312 (1997) https://doi.org/10.1016/S0021-9673(97)00461-5
  20. Lehotay SJ, Lee CH. Evaluation of a fibrous cellulose drying agent in supercritical fluid extraction and pressurized liquid extraction of diverse pesticides. J. Chromatogr. A 785: 313-327 (1997) https://doi.org/10.1016/S0021-9673(97)00551-7
  21. Lee BC, Kim JD, Hwang KY, Lee YY. Extraction characteristics of evening primrose oil with supercritical carbon dioxide. J. Korean Inst. Chem. Eng. 27: 522-530 (1989)
  22. Campos LMAS, Michielin EMZ, Danielski L, Ferreira SRS. Experimental data and modeling the supercritical fluid extraction of marigold (Calendula officinalis) oleoresin. J. Supercrit. Fluid. 34: 163-170 (2005) https://doi.org/10.1016/j.supflu.2004.11.010