Creation and Elaboration of Problem Space Depending on Students' Attitudes toward the Task and Thinking Skills

학생의 과제에 대한 태도와 사고력에 따른 문제공간의 형성과 정교화

  • Kim, Kyung-Jin (Belin-Blank Center for Gifted Education and Talent Development. College of Education, The University of Iowa)
  • 김경진 (아이오아 대학 교육학부 벨린 블랭크 영재센터)
  • Published : 2009.02.28


Inquiry has been emphasized in science classrooms, but the problems shown in the inquiry are somewhat different with ones that students usually meet and experience in everyday life. The purpose of this study is to investigate how attitudes toward the task and thinking skills affect students' problem solving process, especially, the way of creating a problem space and elaborating problem solving strategies when they have little schema. The difference in students' problem solving strategies of Lego Robotics class, one of the summer programs for $4^{th}-6^{th}$ grade gifted students, which is new to them, was investigated. The results are as follows: (1) The difference in attitudes toward the task, or selection and identification of the missions, and the perception of operators, affected creating a different problem space. (2) Different level of thinking skills, or analytical and flexible thinking, efficient elaborative skill, and application of schema affected a different level of elaboration of the problem space and resulted in asuccess rate of problem solving. (3) Different initial problem space resulted in different problem solving strategies. But without thinking skills, students could not elaborate problem solving strategies efficiently. Several instructional recommendations to promote scientific inquiry were suggested based on the results.

탐구는 학교과학에서 지속적으로 강조되어 왔다. 하지만 학교에서 주어지는 문제는 학생들이 일상생활에서 경험하고 부딪치는 문제들과는 여러 면에서 다르다. 본 연구의 목적은 학생들이 문제에 대한 인지도식을 거의 갖고 있지 않을 때, 과제에 대한 태도와 사고력이 문제해결과정, 특히, 문제공간의 형성과 정교화에 어떻게 영향을 미치는지를 알아보는 것이다. 이를 위하여 연구자는 미국의 한 영재센터 여름방학 프로그램 중 4-6학년 영재학생 대상 '레고 로봇 수업'에 참여한 학생들의 문제해결전략을 추적하였다. 결과는 다음과 같다. (1) 과제의 선택과 파악방법, 작동자에 대한 인식의 차이 등 과제에 대한 태도는 서로 다른 문제공간을 형성하게 하였다. (2) 분석적 사고, 융통성, 효율적인 정교화 기술, 기존 인지도식의 적용 등의 사고력의 수준 차이는 문제공간의 정교화 차이와 문제해결의 성공여부로 이어졌다. (3) 초기의 문제공간의 차이는 문제해결전략의 형성 차이를 가져왔지만, 사고력 없이는 효과적인 문제해결전략의 정교화가 이루어지지 못하였다. 마지막으로, 위의 결과를 바탕으로 과학탐구를 증진시킬 몇 가지 사항이 제안되었다.



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