Analysis of Ultrasonography on Biceps Brachii Muscle of Hemiplegic Patient

만성 편마비 환자의 상완이두근에 대한 초음파 영상구조의 특성 분석

  • Kim, Hyun-Jin (Department of Physical Therapy, Graduate School of Dong shin University) ;
  • Yang, Ga-Ae (Department of Physical Therapy, Graduate School of Dong shin University) ;
  • Kim, Su-Hyon (Department of Physical Therapy, Graduate School of Dong shin University) ;
  • Kim, Tae-Youl (Department of Physical Therapy, Dong Shin University)
  • 김현진 (동신대학교대학원 물리치료학과) ;
  • 양가애 (동신대학교대학원 물리치료학과) ;
  • 김수현 (동신대학교대학원 물리치료학과) ;
  • 김태열 (동신대학교 물리치료과)
  • Received : 2009.10.22
  • Accepted : 2009.11.23
  • Published : 2009.12.30


Purpose : This study aims to comparison of ultrasonography on both sides of biceps brachii muscle of hemiplegic patient. Methods : The biceps brachii muscle of fifteen subjects (5 male, 10 female) with stroke were scanned with ultrasonography at the muscle belly at rest at elbow angles of 90 deg. The echogenicity (density, white area index; WAI, anatomic cross-sectional area; ACSA, volume) of ultrasonography was examined. Results : In the biceps brachii muscle, there were significant differences of density, WAI, ACSA, and volume between affected side and non-affected side. biceps brachii muscle, echogenicity (density, WAI) of the affected side was higher than non-affected side. biceps brachii muscle, echogenicity (ACSA, volume) of the non-affected side was higher than affected side. Conclusion : This study showed that change of skeletal muscle architecture properties occurred biceps brachii muscle of the affected side muscle of hemiplegic patient.


  1. Jorgensen HS. The Copenhagen stroke study experience. J Stroke. 1996;6:5-16.
  2. Wade DT, Langton-Hwer R, Wood VA et al. The hemiplegic arm after stroke: Measurement and recovery. J Neural Neurosurg Psychiatry. 1983;46:521-524.
  3. Chae J, Yang G, Park RK et al. Muscle weakness and co-contraction in upper limb hemiparesis: relationship to motor impairment and physical disability. Neurohabil Neural Repair. 2002;16:241-248.
  4. Li L, Tong KY, Hu X. The effect of post stroke impairments on brachialis muscle architecture as measured by ultrasound. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 2007;88:243-250.
  5. Metoki N, Sato Y, Satoh K et al. Muscular atrophy in the hemiplegic thigh in patients after stroke. Am J Phys Med Rehabil. 2003;82:862-865.
  6. Patten C, Lexell J, Brown HE. Weakness and strength training in persons with poststroke hemiplegia: rationale, method, and efficacy. J Rehabil Res Dev. 2004;41:293-312.
  7. Nakayama H, Jorgensen HS, Raaschou HO et al. Recovery of upper extremity function in stroke patients: The Copenhagen Stroke Study. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 1994;75:394-398.
  8. Wade DT, Legh-Smith J, Langton Hewer R. Social activities after stroke: Measurement and natural history using the frenchay activities index. Int Rehabil Med. 1985;7(4):176-181.
  9. Zhang P, Chen X, Fan M. Signaling mechanisms involved in disuse muscle atrophy. Medical Hypotheses. 2007;69:310-321.
  10. Felici F, Colace L, Sbriccoli P. Surface EMG modifications after eccentric exercise. J Electromyogr Kinesiol. 1997;7:193-202.
  11. Sbriccoli P, Felici F, Rosponi A et al. Exercise induced muscle damage and recovery assessed by means of linear and non-linear sEMG analysis and ultrasonography. J Electromyogr Kinesiol. 2001;11:73-83.
  12. Bilodeau M, Schindler-Ivens S, Williams R et al. EMG frequency content changes with increasing force and during fatigue in the quadriceps femoris muscle of men and women. J Electromyogr Kinesiol. 2003;13:83-92.
  13. Moore BD, Drouin J, Gansneder BM et al. The differential effects of fatigue on reflex response timing and amplitude in males and females. J Electromyogr Kinesiol. 2002;12: 351-360.
  14. Svantesson U, Osterberg U, Thomee R et al. Fatigue during repeated eccentric-concentric and pure concentric muscle actions of the plantar flexors. Clin Biomech. 1998;13:336-343.
  15. Chi-Fishman G, Hicks JE, Cintas HM et al. Ultrasound imaging distinguishes between normal and weak muscle. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 2004;85:980-986.
  16. Reeves ND, Narici MV, Maganaris CN. Effect of resistance training on skeletal muscle-specific force in elderly humans. Journal of Applied Physiology. 2004;96:885-892.
  17. Williams GN, Higgins MJ, Lewek MD. Aging skeletal muscle: physiologic changes and the effects of training. Physical Therapy. 2002;82:62-68.
  18. Jacobson JA, Van Holsbeeck MT. Musculoskeletal ultrasonography. Orthop Clin North Am. 1998;29:135-167.
  19. Van Holsbeeck M, Introcaso JH. Musculoskeletal ultrasonography. Radiol Clin North Am. 1992;30:907-925.
  20. Nielsen PK, Jasen BR, Darvann T et al. Quantitative ultrasound tissue characterization in shoulder and thigh muscles. Clinical Biomechanics. 2000;15:S13-S16.
  21. Sipila S, Suominen H. Quantitative ultrasonography of muscle. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 1996;77:1173-1178.
  22. 안경주, 이윤경, 임지희 등. 지구력 운동이 급성기 뇌졸중 쥐의 뒷다리근 질량에 미치는 영향. 대한기초간호자연과학회. 2000;2(2):67-80.
  23. Maurits NM, Beenakker EAC, van Schaik DEC et al. Muscle ultrasound in children. Ultrasound in Med & Biol. 2004;30:1017-1027.
  24. Bernardi M, Solomonow M, Sanchez J. H, Baratta R. V, & Nquyen G. Motor unit recruitment strategy of knee antagonist muscles in a stepwise, increasing isometric contraction. European Journal of Applied Physiology. 1995;70:493-501.
  25. Esformes JI, Narici MV, Maganaris CN. Measurement of human muscle volume using ultrasonography. Eur J Appl Physiol. 2002;87(1):90-92.
  26. Philip CM, Benington, John E et al. Masseter muscle volume measured using ultrasonography and its relationship with facial morphology. European Journal of Orthodontics. 1999;21:659-670.
  27. 윤세원, 황태연, 김용남 등. 제 2형 당뇨환자의 말초신경기능 및 골격근의 Echogenicity 분석. 대한임상전기생리학회지. 2006;4(1):13-25.
  28. 이정우, 김태열, 윤세원 등. 내측 비복근에서 등척성 수축, 근 구조, 운동단위 활동전위 사이의 상관관계. 코칭능력개발지. 2007;9(1):147-155.
  29. 정진규, 김태열, 김용남 등. 정상 골격근의 근전도 중앙주파수 및 초음파 영상 밀도분석. 대한물리치료학회지. 2006;18(1):83-94.
  30. 임영은, 김인걸, 김태열 등. 최대 수의적 등척성 수축을 하는 동안 장요측 수근 신근에서 최대 수의적 등척성 수축력과 근 구조와의 상관관계. 대한물리치료학회지. 2007;19(6):23-30.
  31. Hachisuka K, Umezu Y, Ogata H. Disuse muscle atrophy of lower limbs in hemiplegic patients. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 1997;78:13-18.
  32. Duncan PW. Stroke disability. Phys Ther. 1994;74(5):399-406.
  33. 서삼기. 뇌졸중환자 내측 비복근의 초음파 영상 분석. 대한물리치료학회지. 2007; 19(2):11-19.