Production of Exo-polysaccharide from Submerged Culture of Grifola frondosa and Its Antioxidant Activity

  • Published : 2009.10.31

Abstract

Exo-polysaccharide isolated from the culture of Grifola frondosa was modified by sodium periodate ($NaIO_4$) and sodium chlorite ($NaClO_2$) to delete polysaccharide part and phenolic compound, respectively, and was investigated what effect has each part of exo-polysaccharide against 2,2'-azobis(2-amidinopropane) dihydrochloride (AAPH)-induced oxidative stress in porcine kidney epithelial cells (LLC-PK1). Oxidative stress on LLC-PK1 cell was measured by cell viability, lipid peroxidation, superoxide dismutase (SOD), and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-px) activity. Exposure of LLC-PK1 cells to 1 mM AAPH for 24 hr resulted in significant decrease in cell viability, SOD, and GSH-px action, and significant increase in lipid peroxidation. The treatment of exo-polysaccharide and $NaIO_4$ modified sample protected LLC-PK1 cells from AAPH-induced cell damage such as cell viability, lipid peroxidation, SOD, and GSH-px activity in a dose dependant manner (10, 100, and $500{\mu}g/mL$). However, the treatment of $NaClO_2$ modified sample did not affect for cell viability, lipid peroxidation, SOD, and GSH-px activity. The antioxidant activity of exo-polysaccharide was significantly decreased on AAPH-induced LLC-PK1 cell system when phenolic compound was deleted. The antioxidant activity was significantly correlated with the content of phenolic compound of exo-polysaccharide.

References

  1. Halliwell B. Oxidative stress, nutrition, and health. Experimental strategies for optimization of nutritional antioxidant intake in humans. Free Radical Res. 25: 57-74 (1996) https://doi.org/10.3109/10715769609145656
  2. Koga T, Moro K, Terao J. Protective effect of a vitamin E analog, phosphatidylchomanol, against oxidative hemolysis of human erythocytes. Lipids 33: 589-595 (1998) https://doi.org/10.1007/s11745-998-0244-4
  3. Mao GD, Poznansky MJ. Electron spin resonance study on the permeability of superoxide radicals in lipid bilyers and biological membranes. FEBS Lett. 305: 233-236 (1992) https://doi.org/10.1016/0014-5793(92)80675-7
  4. Miki M, Tamai H, Mino M, Yamamoto Y, Niki E. Free-radical chain oxidation of rat red blood cells by molecular oxygen and its inhibition by tocopherol. Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 258: 373-380 (1987) https://doi.org/10.1016/0003-9861(87)90358-4
  5. Yokozawa T, Cho EJ, Hara Y, Kitani K. Antioxidative activity of green tea treated with radical initiator 2,2'-azobis(2-aminopropane) dihydrochloride. J. Agr. Food Chem. 48: 5068-5073 (2000) https://doi.org/10.1021/jf000253b
  6. Mizuno T, Ohsawa K, Hagiwara N, Kuboyama R. Fractionation and characterization of antitumor polysaccharides from maitake, Grifola frondosa. Agr. Biol. Chem. Tokyo 50: 1679-1688 (1986) https://doi.org/10.1271/bbb1961.50.1679
  7. Ohno N, Adachi Y, Suzuki I, Sato K, Oikawa S, Yadomae T. Characterization of the antitumor glucan obtained from liquidcultured Grifola frondosa. Chem. Pharm. Bull. 34: 1709-1715 (1986) https://doi.org/10.1248/cpb.34.1709
  8. Shigesue K, Kodama N, Nanba H. Effects of mitake (Grifola frondosa) polysaccharide on collagen-induced arthitis in mice. Jpn. J. Pharmacol. 84: 293-300 (2000) https://doi.org/10.1254/jjp.84.293
  9. Kim KC, Kim IG. Ganoderma lucidum extract protects DNA from strand breakage caused hydroxyl radical and UV irradiation. Int. J. Mol. Med. 4: 273-277 (1999)
  10. Lee BC, Bae JT, Pyo HB, Choe TB, Kim SW, Hwang HJ, Yun JW. Biological activities of the polysaccharides produced from submerged culture of the edible basidiomycetes, Grifola frondosa. Enzyme Microb. Tech. 32: 574-581 (2003) https://doi.org/10.1016/S0141-0229(03)00026-7
  11. Park MJ, Han JS. Fucoidan Protects LLC-PK1 Cells against AAPHI induced Damage. Int. J. Food Sci. Nutr. 13: 259-265 (2008) https://doi.org/10.3746/jfn.2008.13.4.259
  12. Li DY, Xu RY, Zhou WZ, Sheng XB, Yang AY, Cheng JL. Effects of fucoidan extracted from brown seaweed on lipid peroxidation in mice. Acta Nutrim. Sin. 24: 389-392 (2002)
  13. Yang BK, Park JB, Song CH. Hypolipidemic effect of exo-polymer produced in submerged mycelial culture of five different mushooms. J. Microbiol. Biotechn. 12: 957-961 (2002)
  14. Piao XL, Park IH, Baek SH, Kim HY, Park MK, Park JH. Antioxidative activity of furanocoumarins isolated from Angelicae dahuricae. J. Ethnopharmacol. 93: 243-246 (2004) https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2004.03.054
  15. Oka S, Shigeta S, Ono K, Jyo T. An epitope residing in carbohydrate chains of sea squit antigen termed Gi-rep. J. Allergy Clin. Immun. 80: 57-63 (1987) https://doi.org/10.1016/S0091-6749(87)80191-4
  16. Pagliaro M. Autocatalytic oxidations of primary hydroxyl groups of cellulose in phosphoric acid with halogen oxides. Carbohyd. Res. 308: 311-317 (1998) https://doi.org/10.1016/S0008-6215(98)00090-1
  17. Singleton VL, Rossi JA. Colorimetry of total phenolics with phosphomolibdic-phosphotungstic acid reagents. Am. J. Enol. Viticult. 16: 144-158 (1965)
  18. Carmichael J, DeGraff WG, Gazdar AF, Minna JD, Mitchell JB. Evaluation of a tetrazolium-based semiautomated colorimetric assay: Assessment of chemosensitivity testing. Cancer Res. 47: 936- 942 (1987)
  19. Fraga CG, Leibovita RM, Roeder RG. Lipid peroxidation measured as thiobarbituric-reactive substances in tissue slices: Characterization and comparision with homogenates and microsomes. Free Radical Bio. Med. 4: 155-161 (1988) https://doi.org/10.1016/0891-5849(88)90023-8
  20. Jimenez I, Garrido A, Bannach R, Gotteland M, Speiskg H. Protective effects of blodine against free radical-induced erythocyte lysis. Phytother. Res. 14: 339-343 (2000) https://doi.org/10.1002/1099-1573(200008)14:5<339::AID-PTR585>3.0.CO;2-T
  21. Lawrence RA, Burk RF. Glutathione peroxidase activity in selenium-deficient rat liver. Biochem. Bioph. Res. Co. 71: 952-958 (1976) https://doi.org/10.1016/0006-291X(76)90747-6
  22. Marklund S, Marklund G. Involvement of the superoxide anion radical in anti-oxidant of pyrogallol and a convenient assay for superoxide dismutase. Eur. J. Biochem. 47: 469-474 (1974) https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1432-1033.1974.tb03714.x
  23. Bors W, Heller W, Michel C, Saran M. Flavonoids as anti-oxidants: Determination of radical scavenging efficiencies. Method Enzymol. 186: 343-355 (1990) https://doi.org/10.1016/0076-6879(90)86128-I
  24. Jovanovic SV, Steenken S, Tosic M, Marjanovic B, Simic MG. Flavonoids as anti-oxidants. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 116: 4846-4851 (1994) https://doi.org/10.1021/ja00090a032
  25. Husain K, Somani SM. Interation of exercise training and chonic ethanol ingestion on testicular anti-oxidant system in rat. J. Appl. Toxicol. 18: 421-429 (1998) https://doi.org/10.1002/(SICI)1099-1263(199811/12)18:6<421::AID-JAT532>3.0.CO;2-R
  26. Alptekin N, Seckin S, Dogru-Abbasoglu S, Yelkenci F, Kocak- Toker N, Toker G, Uysal M. Lipid peroxides, glutathione, γ- glutamylcysteine synthetase, and γ-gutamyltranspeptidase activities in several tissues of rats following water-immersion stress. Pharmacol. Res. 34: 167-169 (1996) https://doi.org/10.1006/phrs.1996.0084