The Effects of Cadmium on Seed Germination and Growth of Sunflower and Rape

카드뮴이 해바라기와 유채 발아 및 성장에 미치는 영향

  • 이광근 (서울대학교 공과대학 건설환경공학부) ;
  • 조한상 (한국환경산업기술원) ;
  • 김재영 (서울대학교 공과대학 건설환경공학부)
  • Received : 2009.12.07
  • Accepted : 2009.12.15
  • Published : 2010.02.28

Abstract

Sunflower (Sunking4505) and Rape (Sunmang) are oil-seeds containing high oleic acid, and these are used for the production materials of bio-diesel and applying for phytoremediation. The effect of cadmium on germination rate and the growth of the plants is evaluated. Object seeds were placed in Cd (0, 1.5, 4, 12, 30, 60, 100, 150, 300, 500 mg/L) solutions for seven days, and germination rate, root length, shoot length, seedling length, and dry weight were observed. $IC_{50}$, seedling vigor index, and tolerance indices were computed, and data were statistically analyzed by Analysis of Variance (ANOVA). Germination rate as well as root, shoot, and seedling length decreased as the cadmium concentration increased except dry weight. The $IC_{50}$ of sunflower and rape are 112 and 10 mg-Cd/L, respectively. Only one of the sunflower seeds is germinated at 500 mg-Cd/L whereas rape seeds are not germinated more than 150 mg-Cd/L solution. Root has higher cadmium sensitivity than shoot, and sunflower has higher germination rate, growth, and seedling vigor index than rape. In case of tolerance indices, sunflower has lower value than rape at relatively low concentration, but has higher value at high concentration.

Acknowledgement

Supported by : 환경부

References

  1. 교육과학기술부, 행정안전부, 농림수산식품부, 지식경제부, 환경부, 국토해양부, 산림청(2009) 저탄소에너지 생산.보급을 위한 폐자원 및 바이오매스 에너지 대책 실행계획. pp. 180-189.
  2. Agency for Toxic Substance & Disease Registry (2007) 2007 CERCLA priority list of hazardous substances. http://www.atsdr. cdc.gov/cercla/07list.html.
  3. Blaylock, M.J., Salt, D.E., Duchenokov, S., Zakharova, Olga., Gussman, C., Kapulnic, Y., Ensley, B.D., and Raskin, I. (1997) Enhanced accumulation of Pb in indian mustard by soil-applied chelating agents. Environ. Sci. Technol., Vol. 31, No. 3, pp. 860-865. https://doi.org/10.1021/es960552a
  4. Chakravarty. B. and Srivastava S. (1992) Toxicity of some heavy metals in vivo and in vitro in Helianthus annuus. Mutat. Res., Vol. 283, pp. 287-294. https://doi.org/10.1016/0165-7992(92)90061-L
  5. Demirbas A.(2008) Biodiesel a realistic fuel alternative for diesel engines. Springer, London.
  6. European Environment Agency (2007) CSI - 105 Progress in management of contaminated sites. http://themes.eea.europa.eu/IMS/ ISpecs/ISpecification20041007131746/IAssessment1152619898983 /view_content.
  7. Farooqi, Z.R., Iqbal, M.Z., Kabir, M., and Shafiq, M. (2009) Toxic effects of lead and cadmium on germination and seedling growth of Albizia lebbeck (L.) benth. Pak. J. Bot., Vol. 41, No. 1, pp. 27-33.
  8. Fozia, A., Muhammad, A.Z., Muhammad A., and Zafar, M.K. (2008) Effect of chromium on growth attributes in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.). J. Environ. Sci., Vol. 20, pp. 1475- 1480. https://doi.org/10.1016/S1001-0742(08)62552-8
  9. Ghani, A. and Wahid, A. (2007) Varietal differences for cadmiuminduced seedling mortality and foliar-toxicity symtoms in mungbean (Vigna radiata). Int. J. Agri. Biol., Vol. 9, No. 4, pp. 555-558.
  10. Ghosh, M. and Singh, S.P. (2005) A review on phytoremediation of heavy metals and utilization of its byproducts. Appl. Ecol. Environ. Res., Vol. 3, No. 1, pp. 1-18.
  11. Haque, A.H.M.M., Akon, M.A.H., Islam, M.A., Khalequzzaman, K.M., and Ali, M.A. (2007) Study of seed health, germination and seedling vigor of farmers produced rice seeds. Int. J. Sustain. Crop Prod. Vol. 2, No. 5, pp. 34-39.
  12. January, M.C., Cutright, T.J., Keulen, H.V., and Wei, R. (2008) Hydroponic phytoremediation of Cd, Cr, Ni, As and Fe: Can Helianthus annuus hyperaccumulate multiple heavy metals?. Chemosphere, Vol. 70, pp. 531-537. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2007.06.066
  13. Karbir, M., Zafar Iqbal, M., Shafiq, M., and Farooqi, Z.R. (2008) Reduction in germination and seedling growth of Thespesia populnea L., Caused by lead and cadmium treatments. Pak. J. Bot., Vol. 40, No. 6, pp. 2419-2426.
  14. Li, B., Wang, Q., Huang, B., and Li, S. (2001) Evaluation of the results from a quasi-tessier's sequential extraction procedure for heavy metal speciation in soils and sediment by ICP-MS. Anal. SCi., Vol. 17, pp. i1561-i1564.
  15. Li, W., Khan, M.A., Yamaguchi, S., and Kamiya, Y. (2005) Effects of heavy metals on seed germination and early seedling growth of Arabidopsis thaliana. Plant Growth Regul., Vol. 46, pp. 45- 50. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10725-005-6324-2
  16. Mani, D., Sharma, B., and Kumar, C., (2007) Phytoaccumulation, interaction, toxicity and remediation of cadmium from Helianthus annuus L. (sunflower). Bull. Environ. Contam. Toxicol., Vol. 79, pp. 71-79. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00128-007-9153-3
  17. Maria, D.G., Myriam, S.Z., Maria, L.T., and Maria, P.B. (2008) Inhibition of root growth and polyanmine metabolism in sunflower (Helianthus annuus) seedlings under cadmium and copper stress. Biol. Trace Emem. Res., Vol. 126, pp. 246-256. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12011-008-8191-y
  18. Nordic Council of Ministers (2003) Cadmium Review. http:// www.norden.org/sv/publikationer/publikationer/2003-1307/ at_download/publicationfile.
  19. Pan, S.W., Wei, S.Q., Yuan, X., and Cao, S.X. (2008) The removal and remediation of phenanthrene and pyrene in soil by mixed cropping of alfalfa and rape. Agri. Sci. China, Vol. 7, No. 11, pp. 1355-1364. https://doi.org/10.1016/S1671-2927(08)60185-6
  20. Peralta, J.R., Cardea-Torresdey, J.L., Tiemann, K.J., $G\acute{o}mez$E., Arteaga, S., Rascon, E., and Parsons, J.G. (2000) Study of the effects of heavy metals on seed germination and plant growth on alfalfa plant (Medicago sativa) grown in solid media. Proc. of the 2000 Conf. on Hazard. Waste Res., Hazard. Sub. Res. Center, Colorado, pp. 135-140.
  21. Ru, S.H., Wang, J.Q., and Su, D.C. (2004) Characteristics of Cd uptake and accumulation in two Cd accumulator oilseed rape species. J. Environ. Sci., Vol. 16, No. 4, pp. 594-598
  22. Tessier, A., Campbell, P.G.C., and Bisson, M. (1979) Sequential extraction procedure for the speciation of particulate trace metals. Anal. Chem., Vol. 51, No. 7, pp. 844-851. https://doi.org/10.1021/ac50043a017
  23. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (1996) Ecological effects test guidelines (OPPTS 850.4200): Seed germination / Root elongation toxicity test. http://epa.gov/oppts/pubs/frs/publications/ OPPTS_Harmonized/850_Ecological_Effects_Test_Guidelines/ Drafts/850-4200.pdf.
  24. Yang, L. (2008) Phytoremediation: An ecotechnology for treating contaminated sites. ASCE, Vol. 12, No. 4, pp. 290-298. https://doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)1090-025X(2008)12:4(290)
  25. Yang, Z.Y., Chen, F.H., Yuan, J.G., Zheng, Z.W., and Wong M.H. (2004) Responses of Sesbania rostrata and S. cannabina to Pb, Zn, Cu and Cd toxicities. J. Environ. Sci., Vol. 16, No. 4, pp. 670-673.