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Genetic association study of single nucleotide polymorphism in dentistry

단일염기다형성을 이용한 치과 질환 유전체 연구

  • Kim, Jee-Hwan (Department of Prodthodontics, Yonsei University College of Dentistry) ;
  • Lee, Jae-Hoon (Department of Prodthodontics, Yonsei University College of Dentistry)
  • 김지환 (연세대학교 치과대학 보철학교실) ;
  • 이재훈 (연세대학교 치과대학 보철학교실)
  • Received : 2011.07.07
  • Accepted : 2011.09.15
  • Published : 2011.10.31

Abstract

Genetic association study has been progressed in medicine along with advance in genetic technology. It focused on the individual differences in genotype due to errors occurring during DNA duplication, which can cause vulnerability to specific diseases. Polymorphism defines the varieties in phenotype due to those genetic variations. Polymorphism due to change in one DNA base sequence is called as a Single Nucleotide Polymorphism. In the near future, the evaluation of relative risk to specific disease according to SNP will be essential part of fundamental of medicine for the diagnosis, treatment and prevention. Dental caries and periodontal diseases has been first subject to genetic association study in dentistry and broaden out to other areas like bone formation and resorption. This article presents the current state of genetic association study and its application to dentistry.

DNA 복제과정에서의 오류(error)에 의한 유전적 변이(genetic variation)를 통해 개개인이 가지고 있는 유전변이형을 조사하고 특정 질환에 대한 감수성의 차이를 밝히는 유전체 연관성 연구가 의학계 전반에 활발히 진행되고 있다. 개인 간의 DNA 상에 존재하는 염기서열의 차이를 보이는 유전적 변이를 통해 개인간의 형질이 다르게 표현 되는 것을 다형성이라고 하는데 다형성의 원인 중 염기 서열 한 쌍의 변이에 의하여 다른 형질로 표현되는 것을 단일염기다형성(Single Nucleotide Polymorphism; SNP)이라고 정의한다. 유전자 분석 기술의 놀랄만한 발전과 컴퓨터를 이용한 분석 프로그램의 개발에 의해 SNP과 질병의 연관성에 관한 연구는 의학계 모든 분야에서 가속화 되고 있다. 최근 급격하게 빨리 진척되는 연구들에 힘입어 특정 질병에 대한 특정 유전자가 가지는 위험도를 분석하고 환자를 유전적 위험도에 따라 분류하여 진단, 예방 및 치료하는 환자 맞춤식의 진료가 모든 의약학 분야에 적용 될 것으로 생각 된다. 치과 영역에서는 충치와 치주 질환과의 관련성에 대해서 초기 단계의 연구가 진행되고 있는 수준이다. 본 종설에서는 유전체 질병 연구의 현황과 치과 영역에서 시작된 연구를 소개 하고자 한다.

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