DOI QR코드

DOI QR Code

An Experimental Analysis of the Ripple Current Applied Variable Frequency Characteristic in a Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cell

  • Received : 2010.09.10
  • Published : 2011.01.20

Abstract

Differences in the frequency characteristic applied to a ripple current may shorten fuel cell life span and worsen the fuel efficiency. Therefore, this paper presents an experimental analysis of the ripple current applied variable frequency characteristic in a polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell (PEMFC). This paper provides the first attempt to examine the impact of ripple current through immediate measurements on a single cell test. After cycling for hours at three frequencies, each polarization and impedance curve is obtained and compared with those of a fuel cell. Through experimental results, it can be absolutely concluded that low frequency ripple current leads to long-term degradation of a fuel cell. Three different PEMFC failures such as membrane dehydration, flooding and carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning that lead to an increase in the impedance magnitude at low frequencies are simply introduced.

Acknowledgement

Supported by : KOSEF

References

  1. J. Pukrushpan et. al., "Control of fuel cell breathing," IEEE Control Syst. Mag., Vol. 24, No. 2, pp. 30-46, Apr. 2004. https://doi.org/10.1109/MCS.2004.1275430
  2. C. J. Hatziadoniu et. al., "A simplified dynamic model of grid-connected fuel-cell generators," IEEE Trans. Power Deliv., Vol. 17, No. 2, pp. 467-473, Apr. 2002. https://doi.org/10.1109/61.997919
  3. Changrong Liu et. al., "Low frequency current ripple reduction technique with active control in a fuel cell power system with inverter load," IEEE Trans. Power Electron., Vol. 22, No. 4, pp. 1429-1436, Jul. 2007. https://doi.org/10.1109/TPEL.2007.900594
  4. Guillaume Fontes et. al., "Interactions between fuel cells and power converters: Influence of current harmonics on a fuel cell stack," IEEE Trans. Power Electron., Vol. 22, No. 2, pp. 670-678, Mar. 2007. https://doi.org/10.1109/TPEL.2006.890008
  5. Jung-Min Kwon et. al., "High-efficiency fuel cell power conditioning system with input current ripple reduction," IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron., Vol. 56, No. 3, pp. 826-834, Mar. 2009. https://doi.org/10.1109/TIE.2008.2004393
  6. W. Choi et. al., "Development of an equivalent circuit model of a fuel cell to evaluate the effects of inverter ripple current," in Proceeding of IEEE Applied Power Electronics Conf. and Expo., pp. 355-361, 2004.
  7. G. Fontes et. al., "Interactions between fuel cells and power converters influence of current harmonics on a fuel cell stack," in Proceeding of IEEE Power Electronics Specialists Conf. and Expo., pp. 4729-4735, 2004.
  8. N. Yousfi-Steiner et. al., "A review on PEM voltage degradation associated with water management: Impacts, influent factors and characterization," J. Power Sources, Vol. 183, No. 1, pp. 260-274, Aug. 2008. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jpowsour.2008.04.037
  9. Denise A. McKay et. al., "Parameterization and prediction of temporal fuel cell voltage behavior during flooding and drying conditions," J. Power Sources, Vol. 178, No. 1, pp. 207-222, Mar. 2008. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jpowsour.2007.12.031
  10. Abraham Gebregergis et. al., "PEMFC fault diagnosis, modeling, and mitigation," IEEE Trans. Ind. Appl., Vol. 46, No. 1, pp. 295-303, Jan/Feb. 2010. https://doi.org/10.1109/TIA.2009.2036677
  11. Jingwei Hu et. al., "Modelling and simulations of carbon corrosion during operation of a polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell," Electrochim. Acta, Vol. 54, No. 23, pp. 5583-5592, Sep. 2009. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.electacta.2009.04.073
  12. Jean-Marc Le Canut et. al., "Detection of membrane drying, fuel cell flooding, and anode catalyst poisoning on PEMFC stacks by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy," J. Electrochem. Soc., Vol. 153, No. 5, pp. A857-A864, 2006. https://doi.org/10.1149/1.2179200
  13. Sunil K. Roy et. al., "Analysis of flooding as a stochastic process in polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cells by impedance techniques," J. Power Sources, Vol. 184, No. 1, pp. 212-219, Sep. 2008. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jpowsour.2008.06.014
  14. Thomas Kadyk et. al., "Nonlinear response analysis of PEM fuel cells for diagnosis of dehydration, flooding and CO-poisoning," J. Electroanal. Chem., Vol. 630, No. 1-2, pp. 19-27, May 2009. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jelechem.2009.02.001
  15. Craig Fennie et. al., "Fuzzy logic-based state-of-health determination of PEM fuel cells," in Proceeding of Electric Vehicle Symposium and Exhibition, 2001.
  16. Caisheng Wang et. al., "Dynamic models and model validation for PEM fuel cells using electrical circuits," IEEE Trans. Energy Convers., Vol. 20, No. 2, pp. 442-451, Jun. 2005. https://doi.org/10.1109/TEC.2004.842357
  17. M. A. Rubio et. al., "Diagnosis of PEM fuel cells through current interruption," J. Power Sources., Vol. 171, No. 2, pp. 670-677, Sep. 2009.
  18. Ryan O'Hayre et. al., Fuel Cell Fundamentals, Wiley, Chap.7, 2005.
  19. Dhirde A. M et. al., "Equivalent electric circuit modeling and performance analysis of a PEM fuel cell stack using impedance spectroscopy," IEEE Trans. Energy Convers., Vol. 25, No. 3, pp. 778-786, Sep. 2010. https://doi.org/10.1109/TEC.2010.2049267
  20. Carlos Andres Ramos-Paja et. al., "Minimum fuel consumption strategy for PEM fuel cells," IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron., Vol. 56, No. 3, pp. 685-696, Mar. 2009. https://doi.org/10.1109/TIE.2008.2007993

Cited by

  1. Mitigation of Low-Frequency Current Ripple in Fuel-Cell Inverter Systems Through Waveform Control vol.28, pp.2, 2013, https://doi.org/10.1109/TPEL.2012.2205407
  2. Investigation of the interactions between proton exchange membrane fuel cell and interleaved DC/DC boost converter in case of power switch faults vol.40, pp.1, 2015, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijhydene.2014.10.072
  3. Equivalent Circuit Modeling of PEM Fuel Cell Degradation Combined With a LFRC vol.60, pp.11, 2013, https://doi.org/10.1109/TIE.2012.2226414
  4. Fuel Cell Lifespan Optimization by Developing a Power Switch Fault-Tolerant Control in a Floating Interleaved Boost Converter vol.17, pp.2, 2017, https://doi.org/10.1002/fuce.201600058
  5. Superconducting coil fed by PEM fuel cell vol.38, pp.16, 2013, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijhydene.2013.03.151
  6. Impedance-based diagnosis of polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell failures associated with a low frequency ripple current vol.51, 2013, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.renene.2012.09.053
  7. Design of a Fuel Cell Power Conditioning System for Online Diagnosis and Load Leveling vol.16, pp.2, 2016, https://doi.org/10.6113/JPE.2016.16.2.695
  8. A DSP-based interleaved boost DC–DC converter for fuel cell applications vol.40, pp.19, 2015, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijhydene.2015.03.069
  9. Experimental platform for development and Evaluation of hybrid generation systems based on fuel cells vol.37, pp.13, 2012, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijhydene.2012.01.161