DOI QR코드

DOI QR Code

The Prevalence of High Myopia in 19 Year-Old Men in Busan, Ulsan and Gyeongsangnam-Do

부산, 울산 및 경상남도 만 19세 남자의 고도근시 유병률

  • Lee, Sang-Joon (Department of Ophthalmology, College of Medicine, Kosin University) ;
  • Urm, Sang-Hwa (Department of Preventive Medicine, College of Medicine, Inje University) ;
  • Yu, Byeng-Chul (Department of Preventive Medicine, College of Medicine, Kosin University) ;
  • Sohn, Hae-Sook (Department of Preventive Medicine, College of Medicine, Inje University) ;
  • Hong, Young-Seoub (Department of Preventive Medicine, College of Medicine, Dong-A University) ;
  • Noh, Maeng-Seok (Division of Mathematical Sciences Statistics, Pukyong National University) ;
  • Lee, Yong-Hwan (Department of Preventive Medicine, College of Medicine, Kosin University)
  • 이상준 (고신대학교 의과대학 안과학교실) ;
  • 엄상화 (인제대학교 의과대학 예방의학교실) ;
  • 유병철 (고신대학교 의과대학 예방의학교실) ;
  • 손혜숙 (인제대학교 의과대학 예방의학교실) ;
  • 홍영습 (동아대학교 의과대학 예방의학교실) ;
  • 노맹석 (부경대학교 자연과학대학 수리과학부) ;
  • 이용환 (고신대학교 의과대학 예방의학교실)
  • Received : 2010.09.16
  • Accepted : 2010.11.19
  • Published : 2011.01.31

Abstract

Objectives: The purpose of this study was to estimate the prevalence and correlated factors of high myopia in 19 year-old men in Southeast Korea. Methods: This retrospective study was based on the medical checkup data of conscription during 2005. The study subjects were 19 years old men in Busan, Ulsan and Gyeongsangnam-do. The health checkup data of the conscripts consisted of noncycloplegic autorefraction test, the biometric data and social factors. To analyze the social and biometric effects, we classified the biometric factors into 4 or 5 groups and the social factors into 3 groups. High myopia was defined as a spherical equivalent of under -6.0 diopter. Data analysis was performed using the chi square test for trends and multiple logistic regression analysis. The SAS(version 9.1) program was used for all the analyses. Results: The prevalence of high myopia was 12.39% (6256 / 50 508). The factors correlated with high myopia were the residence area (OR, 2.07; 95% CI, 1.77 to 2.4 for small city; OR, 2.01; 95% CI, 1.72 to 2.34 for metropolis; the reference group was rural area), academic achievement (OR, 1.43; 95% CI, 1.34 to 1.53 for students of 4-and 6-year-course university; the reference group was high school graduates & under) and blood pressure (OR, 1.54; 95% CI, 1.10 to 2.16 for hypertension; OR, 1.09; 95% CI, 1.02 to 1.17 for prehypertension; OR, 1.10; 95% CI, 1.01 to 1.20 for hypotension; the reference group was normal blood pressure). Conclusions: More than one tenth of the young men were high myopia as one of the risk factor for visual loss. Further studies on high myopia and its complications are needed to improve eye health in Southeast Korea.

Keywords

Acknowledgement

Supported by : 고신대학교 의과대학

References

  1. Vaughan D, Astury T, Riordan-Eva P. General ophthalmology. 15th ed. Conneticut: Appleton & Lange; 1999. p. 354-361.
  2. Saw SM, Katz J, Schein OD, Chew SJ, Chan TK. Epidemiology of myopia. Epidemiol Rev 1996; 18(2):175-187. https://doi.org/10.1093/oxfordjournals.epirev.a017924
  3. Wu HM, Seet B, Yap EP, Saw SM, Lim TH, Chia KS. Does education explain ethnic differences in myopia prevalence? A population-based study of young adult males in Singapore. Optom Vis Sci 2001; 78(4): 234-239. https://doi.org/10.1097/00006324-200104000-00012
  4. Lin LL, Shih YF, Tsai CB, Chen CJ, Lee LA, Hung PT, et al. Epidemiologic study of ocular refraction among schoolchildren in Taiwan in 1995. Optom Vis Sci 1999; 76(5): 275-281. https://doi.org/10.1097/00006324-199905000-00013
  5. Kang SH, Kim PS, Choi DG. Prevalence of myopia in 19- year-old Korean males: the relationship between the prevalence and education or urbanization. J Korean Ophthalmol Soc 2004; 45(12): 2082-2087. (Korean)
  6. Lee SJ, Kim JM, Yu BC, Urm SH, Ahn KS, Lee YH, et al. Prevalence of myopia in 19-year-old men in Gyeongsangnam- do, Ulsan and Busan in 2002. J Korean Ophthalmol Soc 2009; 50(9): 1392-1403. (Korean) https://doi.org/10.3341/jkos.2009.50.9.1392
  7. Ministry of Health and Social Welfare. The report of the 2008 Korean National Health and Nutrition Survey. Kwachon: Ministry of Health and Social Welfare; 2008. (Korean)
  8. Lam DS, Fan DS, Lam RF, Rao SK, Chong KS, Lau JT, et al. The effect of parental history of myopia on children's eye size and growth: results of a longitudinal study. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 2008; 49(3): 873-876. https://doi.org/10.1167/iovs.06-1097
  9. Hammond CJ, Snieder H, Gilbert CE, Spector TD. Genes and environment in refractive error: the twin eye study. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 2001; 42(6): 1232-1236.
  10. Pärssinen O, Lyyra AL. Myopia and myopic progression among schoolchildren: a three-year follow-up study. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 1993; 34(9): 2794-2802.
  11. Saw SM, Zhang MZ, Hong RZ, Fu ZF, Pang MH, Tan DT. Near-work activity, night-lights, and myopia in the Singapore-China study. Arch Ophthalmol 2002; 120(5): 620-627. https://doi.org/10.1001/archopht.120.5.620
  12. Saw SM, Tan SB, Fung D, Chia KS, Koh D, Tan DT, et al. IQ and the association with myopia in children. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 2004; 45(9): 2943-2948. https://doi.org/10.1167/iovs.03-1296
  13. Teasdale TW, Fuchs J, Goldschmidt E. Degree of myopia in relation to intelligence and educational level. Lancet 1988; 2(8624): 1351-1354.
  14. Ojaimi E, Morgan IG, Robaei D, Rose KA, Smith W, Rochtchina E, et al. Effect of stature and other anthropometric parameters on eye size and refraction in a population-based study of Australian children. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 2005; 46(12): 4424-4429. https://doi.org/10.1167/iovs.05-0077
  15. Curtin BJ. The myopias; basic science and clinical management. Philadelphia: Harper & Row; 1985. p. 237-238.
  16. Katz J, Tielsch JM, Sommer A. Prevalence and risk factors for refractive errors in an adult inner city population. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 1997; 38(2): 334-340.
  17. Javitt JC, Chiang YP. The socioeconomic aspects of laser refractive surgery. Arch Ophthalmol 1994; 112(12): 1526-1530. https://doi.org/10.1001/archopht.1994.01090240032022
  18. Chobanian AV, Bakris GL, Black HR, Cushman WC, Green LA, Izzo JL Jr, et al. The Seventh Report of the Joint National Committee on Prevention, Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Pressure : the JNC 7 report. JAMA 2003; 289(19): 2560-2572. https://doi.org/10.1001/jama.289.19.2560
  19. World Health Organization. The Asia-Pacific perspective: refinding obesity and its treatment. Geneva: WHO; 2000.
  20. Jacobsen N, Jensen H, Goldschmidt E. Prevalence of myopia in Danish conscripts. Acta Ophthalmol Scand 2007; 85(2): 165-170.
  21. Wong TY, Foster PJ, Hee J, Ng TP, Tielsch JM, Chew SJ, et al. Prevalence and risk factors for refractive errors in adult Chinese in Singapore. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 2000; 41(9): 2486-2494.
  22. Guggenheim JA, Kirov G, Hodson SA. The heritability of high myopia: a reanalysis of Goldschmidt's data. J Med Genet 2000; 37(3): 227-231. https://doi.org/10.1136/jmg.37.3.227
  23. Farbrother JE, Kirov G, Owen MJ, Guggeheim JA. Family aggregation of high myopia: estimation of the sibling recurrence risk ratio. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 2004; 45(9): 2873-2878. https://doi.org/10.1167/iovs.03-1155
  24. Liang CL, Yen E, Su JY, Liu C, Chang TY, Park N, et al. Impact of family history of high myopia on level and onset of myopia. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 2004; 45(10): 3446- 3452. https://doi.org/10.1167/iovs.03-1058
  25. Saw SM, Wu HM, Seet B, Wong TY, Yap E, Chia KS, et al. Academic achievement, close up work parameters and myopia in Singapore military conscripts. Br J Ophthalmol 2001; 85(7): 855-860. https://doi.org/10.1136/bjo.85.7.855
  26. Wong TY, Mitchell P. The eye in hypertension. Lancet 2007; 369(9559): 425-435. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(07)60198-6
  27. Hennis A, Wu SY, Nemesure B, Leske MC; Barbados Eye Studies Group. Hypertension, diabetes, and longitudinal changes in intraocular pressure. Ophthalmoloy 2003; 110(5): 908-914. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0161-6420(03)00075-7
  28. Klein BE, Klein R, Knudtson MD. Intraocular pressure and systemic blood pressure: longitudinal perspective: the Beaver Dam Eye Study. Br J Ophthalmol 2005; 89(3): 284-287. https://doi.org/10.1136/bjo.2004.048710
  29. Curtin BJ. The myopias; basic science and clinical management. Philadelphia. Harper & Row; 1985. p. 277- 385.
  30. Lee AJ, Saw SM, Gazzard G, Cheng A, Tan DT. Intraocular pressure associations with refractive error and axial length in children. Br J Ophthalmol 2004; 88(1): 5-7. https://doi.org/10.1136/bjo.88.1.5
  31. Schmid KL, Hills T, Abbott M, Humphries M, Pyne K, Wildsoet CF. Relationship between intraocular pressure and eye growth in chick. Ophthalmic Physiol Opt 2003; 23(1): 25-33. https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1475-1313.2003.00085.x
  32. McBrien NA, Gentle A. Role of the sclera in the development and pathological complications of myopia. Prog Retin Eye Res 2003; 22(3): 307-338. https://doi.org/10.1016/S1350-9462(02)00063-0
  33. Rada JA, Shelton S, Norton TT. The sclera and myopia. Exp Eye Res 2006; 82(2): 185-200. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.exer.2005.08.009
  34. Liang CL, Wang HS, Hung KS, Hsi E, Sun A, Kuo YH, et al. Evaluation of MMP3 and TIMP1 as candidate genes for high myopia in young Taiwanese men. Am J Ophthalmol 2006; 142(3): 518-520. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ajo.2006.03.063
  35. Memarzadeh F, Ying-Lai M, Chung J, Azen SP, Varma R; Los Angeles Latino Eye Study Group. Blood pressure, perfusion pressure and open angle glaucoma: the Los Angeles Latino Eye Study. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 2010; 51(6): 2872-2877. https://doi.org/10.1167/iovs.08-2956
  36. Dirani M, Islam A, Baird PN. Body stature and myopia- The Genes in Myopia(GEM) twin study. Ophthalmic Epidemiol 2008; 15(3): 135-139. https://doi.org/10.1080/09286580801957751
  37. Shiose Y. Intraocular pressure: new perspectives. Surv Ophthalmol 1990; 34(6): 413-435. https://doi.org/10.1016/0039-6257(90)90122-C

Cited by

  1. Differences in Prevalence of Refractive Errors in Young Asian Males in Singapore between 1996-1997 and 2009-2010 vol.21, pp.4, 2011, https://doi.org/10.3109/09286586.2014.928824
  2. The Location of the Deepest Point of the Eyeball Determines the Optic Disc Configuration vol.7, pp.None, 2011, https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-017-06072-8