Numerical And Experimental Studies On Wing In Ground Effect

  • Suh, Sung-Bu (Dept. of Naval Architecture and Ocean Engineering, Dong-Eui University) ;
  • Jung, Kwang-Hyo (Dept. of Naval Architecture and Ocean Engineering, Dong-Eui University) ;
  • Chun, Ho-Hwan (Dept. of Naval Architecture and Ocean Engineering, Pusan National University)
  • Received : 2010.03.11
  • Accepted : 2011.05.06
  • Published : 2011.06.01


Numerical and experimental studies were performed to investigate the aerodynamic performance of a thin wing in close vicinity to the ground. The vortex lattice method (VLM) was utilized to simulate the wing in ground (WIG) effect, which included freely deforming wake elements. The numerical results acquired through the VLM were compared to the experimental results. The experiment entailed varying the ground clearance using the DHMTU (Department of Hydromechanics of the Marine Technical University of Saint Petersburg) wing and the WIG craft model in the wind tunnel. The aero-dynamic influence of the design parameters, such as angles of attack, aspect ratios, taper ratios, and sweep angles were studied and compared between the numerical and experimental results associated with the WIG craft. Both numerical and experimental results suggested that the endplate augments the WIG effect for a small ground clearance. In addition, the vortex lattice method simulated the wake deformation following the wing in the influence of the ground effect.


  1. Ahmed, M.R. and Sharma, S.D., An Investigation on the aerodynamics of a symmetrical airfoil in ground effect, Experimental Thermal and Fluid Science vol. 29, (2005) 633-647.
  2. Carter, A.W., Effect of Ground Proximity on the Aerodynamic Characteristics of Aspect Ratio 1 Airfoils with and without Endplates, NASA TN D-970,(1961).
  3. Chun, H.H. and Chang, C.H., Longitudinal stability and dynamic motions of a small passenger WIG craft, Ocean Engineering vol. 29, (2002) 1145-1162.
  4. Chun, H.H., Chang, C.H., Paik, K.J., and Chang, S.I., Preliminary Design of a 20 Passenger PARWIG Craft and Construction of a 1/10 Scale Radio Controlled Model, Proceedings of FAST'97, Sydney, July, (1997)513-519.
  5. Chun, H.H., Chung, K.H., and Chang, J.H. Smoke Trace Flow Visualization of a Wing in the Vicinity of the Ground, 2nd Japan-Korea Joint Symposium on Advanced Technologies, Yokohama National University, Japan, Oct. 31-Nov. 2, (1996) 285-298.
  6. Day, Alexander H. and Doctors, Lawrence J., A Study of the Efficiency of the Wing-In-Ground-Effect Concept. Proceedings of Workshop on Twenty-First Century Flying Ships, Nov, (1995) 1-22.
  7. Fink, P. M., and Lastinger, L. J., Aerodynamics Characteristics of Low-Aspect-Ratio Wings in Close Proximity to the ground, NASA TN D-926 (1961).
  8. Fuwa, T., Takanashi, N., Hirata, N., and Kakugawa, A., A Study on the Conceptual Design of Wing in Surface Effect Ships. Proceedings of 6th International Symposium on Practical Design of Ships and Mobile Units, Society of Naval Architects of Korea, Seoul, Korea, September 17 - 22, (1995) 1735 - 1746.
  9. Halloran,M. and OMeara,S., Wing in Ground Effect Craft Review, DSTO Aeronautical and Maritime Research Laboratory, DSTO-GD-0201, Australia, (1999).
  10. Hess, John L., Calculation of Potential Flow about Arbitrary 3-D Lifting Bodies, Report No. MCD J5679-01, McDonell Douglas, Oct, (1972).
  11. Jung, K.H., Chun, H.H., and Kim, H.J., 2008, Experimental investigation of wing-in-ground effect with a NACA6409 section, Journal of Marine Science and Technology, Vol. 13, No.4, In printing (2008).
  12. Kang, K.J., Twenty Passsenger Class Wing in Ground Craft. Proceedings of the Annual Autumn Meeting, SNAK, Yongin, Korea, Nov, (2005) 958-971. (in Korean)
  13. Katz, J., Calculation of the Aerodynamic Force on Automotive Lifting Surface. ASME Journal of Fluids Engineering, vol. 107, (1985) 438-443..
  14. Kirillovikh V.N., Russian Ekranoplans, Proceedings of Workshop on Twenty-First Century Flying Ships, Sydney, Australia, (1995) 71-117.
  15. Konstadinopoulos, P., Thrasher, D.F., Mook, D.T., Nayfeh, A.H., and Watson, L., A Vortex- Lattice Method for general, Unsteady Aerodynamics, Journal of aircraft, vol. 22, NO. 1, (1985) 43-49.
  16. Kubo, S., A Production Model of WIG as a High Speed Marine Craft: 'Marine Slider - Sky 2, Proceedings of FAST 91, Trondheim, Norway, (1991) 607 - 622.
  17. Kuehmstedt, T., Aerodynamic Design Procedure and Results of the Development of Commercial WIG Craft, Proceedings of Ekranoplans & Very Fast Craft, University of New South Wales, Sydney, Australia, 5-6 December, (1996) 20-37.
  18. Maskew, B., Program VSAERO, A Computer Program for Calculating the Nonlinear Aerodynamic Characteristics of Arbitrary Configurations, NASA CR-166476, Nov, (1982),
  19. Ming, L.S., Xai, L.K., Hua, Y.C., Bo, N., and Nai, Y.X., Development of Wing-in-Ground Effect in CSSRC, Proceedings of Workshop on Ekranoplans & Very Fast Craft, The University of New South Wales, Sydney, Australia, December 5-6, (1996) 244-257.
  20. Muzitani, N. and Suzuki, K., Numerical Analysis of 3-D WIG Advancing over Still Water Surface, Journal of the Society of Naval Architects of Japan, Vol. 174, December , 35-46 (in Japanese), (1993).
  21. Nuhait A. O. and Mook, D. T., Numerical Simulation of Wings in Steady and Unsteady Ground Effects, Journal of aircraft, vol. 26, NO. 12, Dec., (1989)1081-1089.
  22. Shin, M.S., Yang, S.I., Joo, Y.C., Kim, S.K., Bae, Y.S., Kim, J.H., and Chun, H.H., Wind Tunnel Test Results for Eight and twenty Passsenger Class Wing in Ground Effect Ships, Proceedings of FAST'97, Sydney, July, (1997) 565-570.
  23. Sinitsyn D.N.,Summary of the Construction of the First Commercial Ekranoplan, Amphistar. Proceedings of Workshop on Ekranoplans & very fast Craft, The University of New South Wales, Sydney, Australia, December 5-6, (1996) 146-151.

Cited by

  1. A practical method for aerodynamic investigation of WIG vol.88, pp.1, 2016,
  2. Airfoil Aerodynamics in Ground Effect for Wide Range of Angles of Attack vol.53, pp.4, 2015,