- Volume 22 Issue 3
DOI QR Code
Comparison of Muscle Activities of Thoracic and Lumbar Extensors during Trunk Lift Exercises According to Exercise Position
운동 자세에 따른 몸통 들기 운동 시 가슴과 허리 폄 근육의 근활성도 비교
- Koh, Eun-Kyung (Department of Physical Therapy, Masan University) ;
- Jung, Do-Young (Department of Physical Therapy, College of Tourism & Health, Joongbu University)
- Received : 2012.07.31
- Accepted : 2012.09.20
- Published : 2012.09.30
The purpose of this study was to compare the muscle activities of the thoracic extensor(TE) and lumbar extensor(LE) during trunk lift (TL) exercise according to exercise position. Seventeen healthy subjects with no medial history of back pain were recruited for this study. Subjects performed the TL exercise in prone, quadruped and heel-sitting positions. The activities of the TE and LE were measured using surface electromyography during TL exercise in each exercise position. A one-way repeated-measures analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to compare the normalized muscle activities of the TE and LE and the TE/LE ratio. The results showed that there was not significant effect of exercise position on the muscle activities of TE(p>.05). However, there was significant effect of exercise position on the muscle activities of LE and the TE/LE ratio(p>.05). Post hoc pair-wise comparisons with Bonferroni correction showed that both muscle activities of LE and TE/LE ratio in prone position were significantly different in those in heel-sitting and quadruped positions, during TL exercise, respectively. The TE/LE ratio was the greatest for TL exercise in heel-sitting position. Therefore, for selective activation of the TE muscle, we recommend performing the TL exercise in heel-sitting or quadruped position.
- Alricsson, M., & Werner, S.(2004). The effect of pre-season dance training on physical indices and back pain in elite cross-country skiers: a prospective controlled intervention study. British Journal of Sports Medicine, 38(2), 148-153. https://doi.org/10.1136/bjsm.2002.2402
- Balzini, L., Vannucchi, L., Benvenuti, F., Benucci, M., Monni, M., Cappozzo, A., & Stanhope, S. J.(2003). Clinical characteristics of flexed posture in elderly women. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, 51(10), 1419-1426. https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1532-5415.2003.51460.x
- Benson, M. E., Smith, D, R., & Bybee, R. F.(2002). The muscle activation of the erector spinae during hyperextension with and without the pelvis restrained. Physical Therapy in Sport, 3(4), 165-174. https://doi.org/10.1054/ptsp.2002.0118
- Callaghan, J. P., Gunning, J. L., & McGill, S. M.(1998). The relationship between lumbar spine load and muscle activity during extensor exercises. Physical Therapy, 78(1), 8-18.
- Colado, J. C., Pablos, C., Chulvi-Medrano, I., Garcia-Masso, X., Flandez, J., & Behm, D. G.(2005). The progression of paraspinal muscle recruitment intensity in localized and global strength training exercises is not based on instability alone. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 92(11), 1875-1883.
- Davis, C. M.(2002). Myofascial release as complementary in physical therapy for two elderly patients with osteoporosis and kyphoscoliosis-two case studies, Journal of Geriatric Physical Therapy, 25, 33.
- Ensrud, K. E., Black, D. M., Harris, F., Ettinger, B., Cummings, S. R.(1997). Correlates of kyphosis in older women.The Fracture Intervention Trial Research Group. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, 45(6), 682-687. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1532-5415.1997.tb01470.x
- Fon, G. T., Pitt, M. J., & Thies, A. C.(1980). Thoracic kyphosis: range in normal subjects. American Journal of Roentgenology, 134(5), 979-983. https://doi.org/10.2214/ajr.134.5.979
- Grabara, M., & Hadzik, A.(2009). Postural variables in girls practicing volleyball. Biomedical Human Kinetics, 1(1), 67-71
- Goh, S., Price, R. I., Leedman, P. J., & Singer, K. P.(1999). The relative influence of vertebral body and intervertebral disc shape on thoracic kyphosis. Clinical Biomechanics, 14(7), 439-448. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0268-0033(98)00105-3
- Greendale, G. A., Huang, M. H., Karlamangla, A. S., Seeger, L., & Crawford, S.(2009). Yoga decreases kyphosis in senior women and men with adult-onset hyperkyphosis: results of a randomized controlled trial. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, 57(9), 1569-1579 https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1532-5415.2009.02391.x
- Greig, A. M., Bennell, K. L., Briggs A. M., & Hodges P. W.(2008). Postural taping decreases thoracic kyphosis but does not influence trunk muscle electromyographic activity or balance in women with osteoporosis. Manual Therapy, 13(3), 249-257. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.math.2007.01.011
- Itoi, E., & Sinaki, M.(1994). Effect of back-strengthening exercise on posture in healthy women 49 to 65 years of age. Mayo Clinic Proceedings, 69(11), 1054-1059. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0025-6196(12)61372-X
- Kado, D. M.(2009). The rehabilitation of hyperkyphotic posture in the elderly. European Journal of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine, 45(4), 583-593.
- Kado, D. M., Huang, M. H., Karlamangla, A. S., Barrett-Connor, E., & Greendale, G. A.(2004). Hyperkyphotic posture predicts mortality in older community-dwelling men and women: a prospective study. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, 52(10), 1662-1667. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1532-5415.2004.52458.x
- Katzman, W. B., Sellmeyer, D. E., Stewart, A. L., Wanek, L., & Hamel, K. A.(2007). Changes in flexed posture, musculoskeletal impairments, and physical performance after group exercise in community-dwelling older women. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 88(2), 192-199. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apmr.2006.10.033
- Leech, J. A., Dulberg, C., Kellie, S., Pattee, L., & Gay, J.(1990). Relationship of lung function to severity of osteoporosis in women. The American Review of Respiratory Disease, 141(1), 68-71. https://doi.org/10.1164/ajrccm/141.1.68
- Lewis, C., Erhard, R., & Drysdale, G.(2008). Kyphoscoliosis improvement while treating a patient for adhesive capsulitis using the active therapeutic movement. Journal of Manipulative and Physiological Therapeutic, 31(9), 715-722. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jmpt.2008.10.003
- Lopez-Minarro, P. A., Rodriguez, P. L., Santonja, F. M., & Yuste, J. L.(2008). Posture of thoracic spine during triceps-pushdown exercise. Science & Sports 23(3): 183-185. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scispo.2007.10.008
- Manns, R. A., Haddaway, M. J., McCall, I. W., Cassar Pullicino, V., & Davie, M. W.(1996). The relative contribution of disc and vertebral morphometry to the angle of kyphosis in asymptomatic subjects. Clinical Radiology, 51(4), 258-262. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0009-9260(96)80342-4
- Milne, J. S., & Lauder, I. J.(1976). The relationship of kyphosis to the shape of vertebral bodies. Annals of Human Biology, 3(2), 173-179. https://doi.org/10.1080/03014467600001281
- Montgomery, J., & Avers, D.(2007). Daniels and Worthingham's Muscle Testing: Techniques of Manual Examination, 8 edition. Saunders.
- Muyor, J. M., Lopez-Minarro, P. A., & Alacid, F.(2011). A comparison of the thoracic spine in the sagittal plane between elite cyclists and non-athlete subjects. Journal of Back Musculoskeletal Rehabilitation, 24(3), 129-135.
- Nilsson, C., Wykman, A., & Leanderson, J.(1993). Spinal sagittal mobility and joint laxity in young ballet dancers. A comparative study between first-year students at the Swedish Ballet School and a control group. Knee Surgery, Sports Traumatology, Arthroscopy, 1(3-4), 206-208. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF01560208
- Pfeifer, M., Begerow, B., & Minne, H. W.(2004). Effects of a new spinal orthosis on posture, trunk strength, and quality of life in women with postmenopausal osteoporosis: a randomized trial. American Journal of Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation, 83(3), 177-186. https://doi.org/10.1097/01.PHM.0000113403.16617.93
- Rajabi, R., Doherty, P., Goodarzi, M., & Hemayattalab, R.(2008). Comparison of thoracic kyphosis in two groups of elite Greco-Roman and freestyle wrestlers and a group of non-athletic participants. British Journal of Sports Medicine, 42(3), 229-232. https://doi.org/10.1136/bjsm.2006.033639
- Roehrig, S. M.(2006). Use of neurodevelopmental treatment techniques in a client with kyphosis: a case report. Physiotherapy Theory and Practice, 22(6), 337-343. https://doi.org/10.1080/09593980601023713
- Ryan, S. D., & Fried, L. P.(1997). The impact of kyphosis on daily functioning. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, 45(12), 1479-1486. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1532-5415.1997.tb03199.x
- Sahrmann, S.(2010). Movement System Impairment Syndromes of the Extremities, Cervical and Thoracic Spines. Mosby.
- San Juan, J. G., Yaggie, J. A., Levy, S. S., Mooney, V, Udermann, B. E., & Mayer, J. M.(2005). Effects of pelvic stabilization on lumbar muscle activity during dynamic exercise. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 19(4), 903-907.
- Schneider, D. L., von Muhlen, D., Barrett-Connor, E., & Sartoris, D. J.(2004). Kyphosis does not equal vertebral fractures: the Rancho Bernardo study. Journal of Rheumatology, 31(4), 747-752.
- Sinaki, M., Brey, R. H., Hughes, C. A., Larson, D. R., & Kaufman, K. R.(2005). Significant reduction in risk of falls and back pain in osteoporotic-kyphotic women through a Spinal Proprioceptive Extension Exercise Dynamic (SPEED) program. Mayo Clinic Proceedings, 80(7), 849-855. https://doi.org/10.4065/80.7.849
- Sinaki, M., Itoi, E., Rogers, J. W., Bergstralh, E. J., & Wahner, H. W.(1996). Correlation of back extensor strength with thoracic kyphosis and lumbar lordosis in estrogen-deficient women. American Journal of Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation, 75(5), 370-374. https://doi.org/10.1097/00002060-199609000-00013
- Sinaki, M., Itoi, E., Wahner, H. W., Wollan, P., Gelzcer, R., Mullan, B. P., Collins, D. A., & Hodgson, S. F.(2002). Stronger back muscles reduce the incidence of vertebral fractures: a prospective 10 year follow-up of postmenopausal women. Bone, 30(6), 836-841. https://doi.org/10.1016/S8756-3282(02)00739-1
- Sinaki, M., & Lynn, S. G.(2002). Reducing the risk of falls through proprioceptive dynamic posture training in osteoporotic women with kyphotic posturing: a randomized pilot study. American Journal of Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation, 81(4), 241-246. https://doi.org/10.1097/00002060-200204000-00001
- Sinaki, M., & Mikkelsen, B. A.(1984). Postmenopausal spinal osteoporosis: flexion versus extension exercises. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 65(10), 593-596.
- Stutchfielda, B., & Colemana, S.(2006). The relationships between hamstring flexibility, lumbar flexion, and low back pain in rowers. European Journal of Sport Science, 6(4), 255-260. https://doi.org/10.1080/17461390601012678
- Takahashi, T., Ishida, K., & Hirose, D.(2005). Trunk deformity is associated with a reduction in outdoor activities of daily living and life satisfaction in community-dwelling older people. Osteoporos Interantional, 16(3), 273-279. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00198-004-1669-3
- Uetake, T., Ohtsuki, F., Tanaka., H., & Shindo., M.(1998). The vertebral curvature of sportsmen. Journal of Sport Sciences, 16(7), 621-628. https://doi.org/10.1080/026404198366425
- Voutsinas, S. A., & MacEwen, G. D.(1986). Sagittal profiles of the spine. Clinical Orthopaedics and Related Research, 210, 235-242.
- Wojtys E. M, Ashton-Miller J. A, Huston L. J, & Moga P. J.(2000). The association between athletic training time and the sagittal curvature of the immature spine. The American Journal of Sports Medicine, 28(4), 490-498.