Comparison of Cerebral Cortical Neuron Excitability of Normal Elderly People during Concentric and Eccentric Contraction

정상 노년층의 동심성 및 편심성 수축 시 대뇌 피질신경원 흥분도 비교

  • Kang, Jeong-Il (Department of Physical Therapy, Graduate School, Sehan University) ;
  • Choi, Hyun (Department of Physical Therapy, Graduate School, Sehan University)
  • 강정일 (세한대학교 일반대학원 물리치료학과) ;
  • 최현 (세한대학교 일반대학원 물리치료학과)
  • Received : 2012.06.30
  • Accepted : 2012.08.15
  • Published : 2012.08.25

Abstract

Purpose: This study was designed to analyze the differences in cerebral cortex activity of the elderly after extracting the movement related cortical potentials (MRCPs) from electroencephalogram (EEG) during a concentric and eccentric contraction of the elbow joint flexors, and entering them into the brain-mapping program to make the images. Methods: Right-dominant normal elderly people were divided into an eccentric contraction group and a concentric contraction group. Then, their MRCPs were measured using EEG and sEMG, during an eccentric and concentric contraction. Then, they were converted into images using the brain-mapping program. Results: Eccentric contraction group's $C_3$ and Cz showed statistically higher mean values of MRCP positive potential than the concentric contraction group. Conclusion: Researching a cerebral cortex activity, using MRCP, would provide basic data for clinical neuro-physiological researches on aging or neural plasticity of patients with a central nervous system injury.

Acknowledgement

Supported by : 세한대학교

References

  1. Roig M, Macintyre DL, Eng JJ et al. Preservation of eccentricstrength in older adults: evidence, mechanisms and implications for training and rehabilitation. Exp Gerontol. 2010;45(6):400-9. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.exger.2010.03.008
  2. Leadbetter WB. Cell-matrix response in tendon injury. Clin Sports Med. 1992;11(3):533-78.
  3. Lindstedt SL, LaStayo PC, Reich TE. When active muscles lengthen: properties and consequences of eccentric contractions. News Physiol Sci. 2001;16:256-61.
  4. LaStayo PC, Woolf JM, Lewek MD et al. Eccentric muscle contractions: their contribution to injury, prevention, rehabilitation, and sport. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther. 2003;33(10):557-71.
  5. Koceja DM, Markus CA, Trimble MH. Postural modulation of the soleus H reflex in young and old subjects. Electroencephalogr Clin Neurophysiol. 1995;97(6):387-93. https://doi.org/10.1016/0924-980X(95)00163-F
  6. Angulo-Kinzler RM, Mynark RG, Koceja DM. Soleus H-reflex gain in elderly and young adults: modulation due to body position. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. 1998;53(2):M120-5.
  7. Lee SJ, Kim SY. Physiological changes with aging. J Korean Soc Phys Ther. 1993;5(1):79-87.
  8. Enoka RM. Eccentric contractions require unique activation strategies by the nervous system. J Appl Physiol. 1996;81(6):2339-46.
  9. Fang Y, Siemionow V, Sahgal V et al. Distinct brain activation patterns for human maximal voluntary eccentric and concentric muscle actions. Brain Res. 2004;1023(2):200-12. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.brainres.2004.07.035
  10. Kim CS, Kim JH, Park MK et al. Comparison of cortical activation between concentric and eccentric exercise: a pilot fmri study. J Korean Soc Phys Ther. 2010;22(2):25-30.
  11. Chen ACN. EEG/MEG brain mapping of human pain: recent advances. International Congress Series. 2002;1232:5-16.
  12. Siemionow V, Yue GH, Ranganathan VK et al. Relationship between motor activity-related cortical potential and voluntary muscle activation. Exp Brain Res. 2000;133(3):303-11. https://doi.org/10.1007/s002210000382
  13. Takeda Y, Yamanaka K, Yamamoto Y. Temporal decomposition of EEG during a simple reaction time task into stimulus- and response-locked components. Neuroimage. 2008;39(2):742-54. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neuroimage.2007.09.003
  14. González I, Eblen-Zajjur A. Tridimensional animated brain mapping from conventional paper-ink EEG recordings. Comput Biol Med. 2004;34(7):591-600. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.compbiomed.2003.06.002
  15. Jeong SH, Kim KW. A comparison study for mortality forecasting models by average life expectancy. Korean J Appl Stat. 2011;24(1):115-25. https://doi.org/10.5351/KJAS.2011.24.1.115
  16. Thompson LV. Skeletal muscle adaptations with age, inactivity, and therapeutic exercise. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther. 2002;32(2):44-57.
  17. Hallett M. Movement-related cortical potentials. Electromyogr Clin Neurophysiol. 1994;34(1):5-13.
  18. Shibasaki H, Barrett G, Halliday E et al. Cortical potentials following voluntary and passive finger movements. Electroencephalogr Clin Neurophysiol. 1980;50(3-4):201-13. https://doi.org/10.1016/0013-4694(80)90147-9
  19. Fang Y, Siemionow V, Sahgal V et al. Greater movement-related cortical potential during human eccentric versus concentric muscle contractions. J Neurophysiol. 2001;86(4):1764-72.
  20. Yang GA, Kim TY, Kim SH et al. Comparison of the activity of cortical neurons according to muscle contraction type between post stroke hemiplegic subjects and healthy subjects. J Korean Soc Phys Ther. 2009;21(1):73-80.
  21. Lee M, Carroll TJ. Cross education: possible mechanisms for the contralateral effects of unilateral resistance training. Sports Med. 2007;37(1):1-14. https://doi.org/10.2165/00007256-200737010-00001
  22. Munn J, Herbert RD, Gandevia SC. Contralateral effects of unilateral resistance training: a meta-analysis. J Appl Physiol. 2004;96(5):1861-6. https://doi.org/10.1152/japplphysiol.00541.2003
  23. Bates JF, Goldman-Rakic PS. Prefrontal connections of medial motor areas in the rhesus monkey. J Comp Neurol. 1993;336(2):211-28. https://doi.org/10.1002/cne.903360205
  24. Oda S, Shibata M, Moritani T. Force-dependent changes in movement-related cortical potentials. J Electromyogr Kinesiol. 1996;6(4):247-52. https://doi.org/10.1016/S1050-6411(96)00010-7
  25. Ortu E, Ruge D, Deriu F et al. Theta Burst Stimulation over the human primary motor cortex modulates neural processes involved in movement preparation. Clin Neurophysiol. 2009;120(6):1195-203. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.clinph.2009.04.001
  26. Shibasaki H, Hallett M. What is the Bereitschaftspotential? Clin Neurophysiol. 2006;117(11):2341-56. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.clinph.2006.04.025