Analysis of the Effects of CO Poisoning and Air Bleeding on the Performance of a PEM Fuel Cell Stack using First-Order System Model

일차계 모델을 이용한 고분자전해질 연료전지 스택의 CO Poisoning 및 Air Bleeding 효과 분석

  • Han, In-Su (Research & Development Center, GS Caltex Corp.) ;
  • Shin, Hyun Khil (Research & Development Center, GS Caltex Corp.)
  • Received : 2013.02.28
  • Accepted : 2013.04.12
  • Published : 2013.06.01


We analyze the effects of CO poisoning and air bleeding on the performance of a PEM (polymer electrolyte membrane) fuel cell stack fabricated using commercial MEA (membrane electrode assembly). Dynamic response data from the experiments on the performance of a stack are identified by obtaining steady-state gains and time-constants of the first-order system model expressed as a first-order differential equation. It is found that the cell voltage of the stack decreases by 1.3-1.6 mV as the CO concentration rises by 1 ppm. The time elapsed to reach a new steady state after a change in the CO concentration is shortened as the magnitude of the change in the CO concentration increases. In general, the steady-state gain becomes bigger and the time-constant gets smaller with increasing the air concentration (air-bleeding level) in the reformate gas to restore the cell voltage. However, it is possible to recover 87%-96% of the original cell voltages, which are measured with free of CO, within 1-30 min by introducing the bleed air as much as 1% of the reformate gas into the stack.

상업용 막전극접합체를 사용하여 제작한 고분자전해질 연료전지의 CO poisoning 및 air bleeding 효과가 스택의 셀전압 성능에 미치는 영향을 분석하였다. 실험을 통해 확보한 동적 응답 데이터에 일차 미분방정식으로 표현되는 일차계 모델을 적용하여 정상상태 이득과 시간상수를 계산하는 방법으로 스택 셀전압의 응답 특성을 정량화하였다. 연료전지 개질기로부터 공급되는 개질 가스에 포함된 CO 농도가 1 ppm 증가할 때마다 셀전압은 1.3~1.6 mV 저하되고, CO 농도의 변화폭이 클수록 정상상태에 도달하기까지 걸리는 시간이 점점 짧아지는 것으로 분석되었다. CO poisoning에 의해 저하된 스택 성능을 회복시키기 위해 air bleeding을 수행할 경우, 주입하는 공기의 농도를 증가시킬수록 셀전압 상승폭(정상상태 이득)이 커지고 회복시간(시간상수)은 짧아지나, 1% 수준의 air bleeding만으로도 CO poisoning이 일어나기 전 셀전압의 87%~96%를 1~30 min 이내에 회복시킬 수 있는 것으로 분석되었다.



  1. Son, J.-E., "Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Technology," Korean Chem. Eng. Res.(HWAHAK KONGHAK), 42(1), 1-9(2004).
  2. Tingelof, T., Hedstrom, L., Holmstrom, N., Alvfors, P. and Lindbergh, G., "The Influence of $CO_{2}$, CO and Air Bleed on the Current Distribution of a Polymer Electrolyte Fuel Cell," Int. J. Hydrog. Energy, 33, 2064-2072(2008).
  3. Sung, L.-Y., Hwang, B.-J., Hsueh, K.-L. and Tsau, F.-H., "Effects of Anode Air Bleeding on the Performance of CO-poisoned Proton-Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells," J. Power Sources, 195, 1630-1639(2010).
  4. Hedstrom, L., Tingelof, T., Alvfors, P. and Lindbergh, G., "Experimental Results from a 5 kW PEM Fuel Cell Stack Operated on Simulated Reformate from Highly Diluted Hydrogen Fuels: Efficiency, Dilution, Fuel Utilization, CO Poisoning and Design Criteria," Int. J. Hydrog. Energy, 34, 1508-1514(2009).
  5. Sim, W., Kim, D., Choi, S., Kim, K., Ahn, H., Jung, M. and Park, K., "Effect of Ru/C Catalyst on the CO Tolerance of Anode and Durability of Membrane in PEMFC," Korean Chem. Eng. Res. (HWAHAK KONGHAK), 46(2), 286-290(2008).
  6. Cho, Y.-H., Yoo, S. J., Cho, Y.-H., Park, H.-S. and Sung, Y.-E., "CO Tolerance Improvement of MEA using Metal Thin Film by Sputtering Method in PEM Fuel Cell," J. Korean Electrochem. Soc., 10(4), 279-282(2007).
  7. Qi, Z., He, C. and Kaufman, A., "Effect of CO in the Anode Fuel on the Performance of PEM Fuel Cell Cathode," J. Power Sources, 111, 239-247(2002).
  8. Inaba, M., Sugishita, M., Wada, J., Matsuzawa, K., Yamada, H. and Tasaka, A., "Impacts of Air Bleeding on Membrane Degradation in Polymer Electrolyte Fuel Cells," J. Power Sources, 178, 699-705(2008).
  9. Kim, T., Lee, H., Sim, W., Lee, J., Kim, S., Lim, T. and Park, K. "Degradation of Proton Exchange Membrane by Pt Dissolved/ deposited in Fuel Cells," Korean J. Chem. Eng., 26(5), 1265-1271(2009).
  10. Bequette, B. W., Process Dynamics: Modeling, Analysis, and Simulation, Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River, NJ(1998).
  11. Maron, K. J., Numerical Analysis: A Practical Approach, Macmillan Publishing, New York, NY(1982).
  12. Wang, W., "The Effect of Internal Air Bleed on CO Poisoning in a Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell," J. Power Sources, 191, 400-406(2009).