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Quality and characteristics of ginseng seed oil treated using different extraction methods

  • Lee, Myung-Hee (Processing Technology Research Group, Korea Food Research Institute) ;
  • Kim, Sung-Soo (Processing Technology Research Group, Korea Food Research Institute) ;
  • Cho, Chang-Won (Processing Technology Research Group, Korea Food Research Institute) ;
  • Choi, Sang-Yoon (Processing Technology Research Group, Korea Food Research Institute) ;
  • In, Gyo (Korea Ginseng Corporation Research Institute, Korea Ginseng Corporation) ;
  • Kim, Kyung-Tack (Processing Technology Research Group, Korea Food Research Institute)
  • Received : 2013.03.08
  • Accepted : 2013.06.04
  • Published : 2013.10.15

Abstract

Ginseng seed oil was prepared using compressed, solvent, and supercritical fluid extraction methods of ginseng seeds, and the extraction yield, color, phenolic compounds, fatty acid contents, and phytosterol contents of the ginseng seed oil were analyzed. Yields were different depending on the roasting pretreatment and extraction method. Among the extraction methods, the yield of ginseng seed oil from supercritical fluid extraction under the conditions of 500 bar and $65^{\circ}C$ was the highest, at 17.48%. Color was not different based on the extraction method, but the b-value increased as the roasting time for compression extraction was increased. The b-values of ginseng seed oil following supercritical fluid extraction were 3.54 to 15.6 and those following compression extraction after roasting treatment at $200^{\circ}C$ for 30 min, were 20.49, which was the highest value. The result of the phenolic compounds composition showed the presence of gentisic acid, vanillic acid, ferulic acid, and cinnamic acid in the ginseng seed oil. No differences were detected in phenolic acid levels in ginseng seed oil extracted by compression extraction or solvent extraction, but vanillic acid tended to decrease as extraction pressure and temperature were increased for seed oil extracted by a supercritical fluid extraction method. The fatty acid composition of ginseng seed oil was not different based on the extraction method, and unsaturated fatty acids were >90% of all fatty acids, among which, oleic acid was the highest at 80%. Phytosterol analysis showed that ${\beta}$-sitosterol and stigmasterol were detected. The phytosterol content of ginseng seed oil following supercritical fluid extraction was 100.4 to 135.5 mg/100 g, and the phytosterol content following compression extraction and solvent extraction was 71.8 to 80.9 mg/100 g.

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