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Quantitative Analysis of Feline Calicivirus Inactivation using Real-time RT-PCR

Real-time RT-PCR을 이용한 Feline Calicivirus 불활성화의 정량적 분석

  • Jeong, Hye Mi (Dept. of Food Science and Biotechnology, Chungbuk National University) ;
  • Kim, Kwang Yup (Dept. of Food Science and Biotechnology, Chungbuk National University)
  • 정혜미 (충북대학교 식품생명공학과) ;
  • 김광엽 (충북대학교 식품생명공학과)
  • Received : 2013.09.03
  • Accepted : 2014.02.25
  • Published : 2014.03.30

Abstract

Norovirus causes acute gastroenteritis in all age groups and its food poisoning outbreaks are rapidly increasing in Korea. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) is most widely used for the rapid detection of foodborne viruses due to high sensitivity. However, the false positive results of RT-PCR obtained against already inactivated viruses could be a serious drawbacks in food safety area. In this study, we investigated a method to yield true positive RT-PCR results only with alive viruses. To decompose the RNA genes from dead viruses, the enzymatic treatments composed of proteinse K and Ribonuclease A were applied to the sanitized and inactivated virus particles. Another aim of this study was to quantify the efficiencies of several major sanitizing treatments using real-time RT-PCR. Feline calicivirus (FCV) that belongs to the same Caliciviridae family with norovirus was used as a surrogate model for norovirus. The initial level of virus in control suspension was approximately $10^4$ PFU/mL. Most of inactivated viruses treated with the enzymatic treatment for 30 min at $37^{\circ}C$ were not detected in RT-PCR, Quantification results to verify the inactivation efficiencies of sanitizing treatments using real-time RT-PCR showed no false positive in most cases. We could successfully develope a numerical quantification process for the inactivated viruses after major sanitizing treatments using real-time RT-PCR. The results obtained in this study could provide a novel basis of rapid virus quantification in food safety area.

본 연구에서는 FCV 현탁액에 물리, 화학적 위생처리 후 복합효소처리라는 전처리과정을 적용한 뒤 real-time RT-PCR법을 이용하여 살균효능을 분석하였다. RT-PCR 이전에 $37^{\circ}C$에서 30분 동안 PK와 RNase A를 처리함으로써 UV, 열, 염소, 에탄올, 과초산계열 제품에 의해 불활성화 된 바이러스들은 음성 결과를 나타내었고, real-time RTP-CR법을 통해 살균 효능을 정량분석한 결과, 복합효소처리를 했을 경우 무처리구보다 더 높은 살균 효능을 보이는 것을 확인할 수 있었다. 이로써 Nuanualsuwan S. 등의 선행연구에서와 같이 PK와 RNase A로 전처리하는 단계를 통하여 물리, 화학적 위생처리에 의해 손상되지 않은 바이러스가 RT-PCR법에 의해 증폭되는 것을 방지함으로써 Real-time PCR법에 대한 검출 감도를 높일 수 있음을 확인하였다. 또한, FCV를 검출하기 위해 사용된 RT-PCR과 real-time RT-PCR 두 방법 중에서도 real-time RT-PCR법이 가장 신속하면서도 민감도 높은 결과로 도출되었다. 따라서, 유전자 분석 이전에 복합효소처리는 물리, 화학적 위생처리에 의해 불활성화 된 바이러스의 RNA가 transcription 또는 증폭되는 것을 방지하기 위한 수단으로 real-time RT-PCR법과 결합됨으로써 노로바이러스를 비롯한 식중독 바이러스를 검출하는데 효과적으로 적용될 것으로 판단된다. 또한 식품현장에서 전기영동 과정없이 신속하게 살아있는 바이러스만을 수치적으로 정량화함으로써 식품안전에도 기여할 것으로 사료된다.

Acknowledgement

Supported by : 충북대학교

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