DOI QR코드

DOI QR Code

Comparisons of Foot Pressure Patterns between Experienced Skiers and Intermediate Skiers during Alpine Skiing

알파인 스킹 시 상급 스키어와 중급 스키어 간의 족저압력 패턴 비교

  • Kim, Joo-Nyeon (Department of Physical Education, Graduate School of Korea National Sport University) ;
  • Yoo, Si-Hyun (Department of Physical Education, Graduate School of Korea National Sport University) ;
  • Ha, Sung-He (Department of Physical Education, Graduate School of Korea National Sport University) ;
  • Kim, Jin-Hae (Department of Physical Education, College of Sport Science of Korea National Sport University) ;
  • Ryu, Ji-Seon (Department of Health and Exercise Science, College of Lifetime Sport of Korea National Sport University) ;
  • Park, Sang-Kyoon (Department of Physical Education, College of Sport Science of Korea National Sport University) ;
  • Yoon, Suk-Hoon (Department of Community Sport, College of Lifetime Sport of Korea National Sport University)
  • 김주년 (한국체육대학교 대학원 체육학과) ;
  • 류시현 (한국체육대학교 대학원 체육학과) ;
  • 하성희 (한국체육대학교 대학원 체육학과) ;
  • 김진해 (한국체육대학교 스포츠과학대학 체육학과) ;
  • 류지선 (한국체육대학교 생활체육대학 운동건강관리학과) ;
  • 박상균 (한국체육대학교 스포츠과학대학 체육학과) ;
  • 윤석훈 (한국체육대학교 생활체육대학 사회체육학과)
  • Received : 2014.02.26
  • Accepted : 2014.03.24
  • Published : 2014.03.31

Abstract

This study investigated foot pressure patterns between experienced skiers and intermediate skiers during alpine skiing. Five experienced skiers and five intermediate skiers participated in this study. Foot pressure measurement system was used to measure vertical ground reaction force (vGRF) and contact area under the six plantar regions. Each participant was asked to perform basic parallel turns and carved turns on a $18^{\circ}$ groomed slope. Each right turn was divided into the initiation phase, the steering phase 1 and 2. For the initiation phase of the basic parallel turns, significantly greater contact area was found on the LRF and RRF of the intermediate skiers (p<.05) and significantly greater vGRF was found on the LRF of the intermediate skiers (p<.05). Also significantly greater vGRF and contact area were found on the LRF and RRF of the intermediate skiers at the steering phase 1 (p<.05) and on the LRF of the intermediate skiers at the steering phase 2 (p<.05). For the carved turns, significantly greater vGRF and contact area were found on the LRF and RRF of the intermediate skiers at all three phase (p<.05). On the other hand, significantly greater vGRF was found on the RFF of the experienced skiers at the steering phase 1 (p<.05). Also significantly greater vGRF and contact area were found on the RMF of the experienced skiers at the steering phase 2 (p<.05). In order to increase performance, we suggest that the intermediate skiers should be unweighted at the initiation phase and shift the body weight to the forefoot of the outer foot at the steering phase 1. Also, the outer ski should be loaded more than the both skis at the steering phase 1 and 2.

Acknowledgement

Supported by : 국민체육진흥공단

References

  1. Federolf, P., Scheiber, P., Rauscher, E., Schwameder, H., Lüthi, A., Rhyner, H. U., & Müller, E. (2008). Impact of skier actions on the gliding times in alpine skiing. Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports, 18(6), 790-797. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1600-0838.2007.00745.x
  2. Gilgien, M., Spörri, J., Chardonnens, J., Kröll, J., & Müller, E. (2013). Determination of external forces in alpine skiing using a differential global navigation satellite system. Sensors, 13(8), 9821-9835. https://doi.org/10.3390/s130809821
  3. Greenwald, R., Senner, V., & Swanson, S. (2001). Biomechanics of carving skis. Sportmedizin und Sporttraumatologie, 49(1), 00-00.
  4. Heinrich, D., Mössner, M., Kaps, P., & Nachbauer, W. (2010). Calculation of the contact pressure between ski and snow during a carved turn in Alpine skiing. Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports, 20(3), 485-492.
  5. Hintermeister, R. A., O'Connor, D. D., Dillman, C. J., Suplizio, C. L., Lange, G. W., & Steadman, J. R. (1995). Muscle activity in slalom and giant slalom skiing. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 27(3), 315-322.
  6. Hintermeister, R. A., O'Connor, D. D., Lange, G. W., Dillman, C. J., & Steadman, J. R. (1997). Muscle activity in wedge, parallel, and giant slalom skiing. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 29(4), 548-553. https://doi.org/10.1097/00005768-199704000-00018
  7. Interski. (2014). Interski members. Retrieved from http://www.interski.org/
  8. Interski 2015. (2014). Interski Congress 2015. Retrieved from http://www.interski-2015.org/
  9. Klous, M., Müller, E., & Schwameder, H. (2010). Collecting kinematic data on a ski/snowboard track with panning, tilting, and zooming cameras: is there sufficient accuracy for a biomechanical analysis? Journal of Sports Sciences, 28(12), 1345-1353. https://doi.org/10.1080/02640414.2010.507253
  10. Klous, M., Müller, E., & Schwameder, H. (2012). Three-dimensional knee joint loading in alpine skiing: a comparison between a carved and a skidded turn. Journal of Applied Biomechanics, 28(6), 655-664.
  11. Korea Ski Instructors Association. (2014). The history of Korea Ski Instructors Association. Retrieved from http://www.ksia.co.kr/
  12. Korea Ski Resort Business Association. (2014). Ski instructor Introduction. Retrieved from http://www.skiresort.or.kr/
  13. Kroll, J., Wakeling, J. M., Seifert, J. G., & Müller, E. (2010). Quadriceps Muscle Function during Recreational Alpine Skiing. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 42(8), 1545-1556. https://doi.org/10.1249/MSS.0b013e3181d299cf
  14. Muller, E., Bartlett, R., Raschner, C., Schwameder, H., Benko-Bernwick, U., & Lindinger, S. (1998). Comparisons of the ski turn techniques of experienced and intermediate skiers. Journal of Sports Sciences, 16(6), 545-559. https://doi.org/10.1080/026404198366515
  15. Muller, E., & Schwameder, H. (2003). Biomechanical aspects of new techniques in alpine skiing and ski-jumping. Journal of Sports Sciences, 21(9), 679-692. https://doi.org/10.1080/0264041031000140284
  16. Kruger A, Edelmann-Nusser J. (2010). Application of a full body inertial measurement system in alpine skiing: a comparison with an optical video based system. Journal of Applied Biomechanics, 26(4), 516-521.
  17. Stricker, G., Scheibera, P., Lindenhofera, E., & Müllera, E. (2010). Determination of forces in alpine skiing and snowboarding: Validation of a mobile data acquisition system. European Journal of Sport Science, 10(1), 31-41. https://doi.org/10.1080/17461390903108141
  18. Supej, M. (2008). Differential specific mechanical energy as a quality parameter in racing alpine skiing. Journal of Applied Biomechanics, 24(2), 121-129.
  19. Supej, M. (2010). 3D measurements of alpine skiing with an inertial sensor motion capture suit and GNSS RTK system. Journal of Sports Sciences, 28(7), 759-769. https://doi.org/10.1080/02640411003716934
  20. Supej, M., & Holmberg, H. C. (2010). How gate setup and turn radii influence energy dissipation in slalom ski racing. Journal of Applied Biomechanics, 26(4), 454-464.
  21. Supej, M., & Holmberg, H. C. (2011). A new time measurement method using a high-end global navigation satellite system to analyze alpine skiing. Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, 82(3), 400-411. https://doi.org/10.1080/02701367.2011.10599772
  22. Supej, M., Kipp, R., & Holmberg, H. C. (2011). Mechanical parameters as predictors of performance in alpine World Cup slalom racing. Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports, 21(6), 72-81. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1600-0838.2010.01159.x
  23. Supej, M., Saetran, L., Oggiano, L., Ettema, G., Sarabon, N., Nemec, B., & Holmberg, H. C. (2013). Aerodynamic drag is not the major determinant of performance during giant slalom skiing at the elite level. Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports, 23(1), e38-47. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1600-0838.2011.01348.x
  24. The Ministry of Culture, Sports and Tourism. (2008). Survey on National Leisure Activity. Retrieved from http://stat.mcst.go.kr/
  25. Vaverka, F., Vodickova, S., & Elfmark, M. (2012). Kinetic analysis of ski turns based on measured ground reaction forces. Journal of Applied Biomechanics, 28(1), 41-47.

Cited by

  1. Comparisons of Pflugbogen's Biomechanical Characteristics to Develop Interactive Ski Simulator vol.24, pp.3, 2014, https://doi.org/10.5103/KJSB.2014.24.3.189
  2. Kinematic study with and without ski boots using ski simulator vol.32, pp.1, 2017, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scispo.2016.07.008
  3. Comparison of Three-dimensional Kinematic Changes of the Lower Extremity between the Two Different Braking Distances of Snowplow in Alpine Skiing vol.26, pp.4, 2016, https://doi.org/10.5103/KJSB.2016.26.4.361
  4. Comparisons of Center of Mass and Lower Extremity Kinematic Patterns between Carved and Basic Parallel Turn during Alpine Skiing vol.24, pp.3, 2014, https://doi.org/10.5103/KJSB.2014.24.3.201