DOI QR코드

DOI QR Code

Comparison of Germination Characteristics and Daily Seed Germination Pattern in 15 New Cultivars of Kentucky Bluegrass under Alternative and Natural Conditions at Room Temperature

자연실온 및 변온환경에서 15종류의 켄터키 블루그래스 신품종의 발아특성 및 일일발아패턴 비교

  • Kim, Kyoung-Nam (Dept. of Horticulture, College of Science and Technology, Sahmyook University)
  • 김경남 (삼육대학교 과학기술대학 원예학과)
  • Received : 2014.06.03
  • Accepted : 2014.07.07
  • Published : 2014.10.31

Abstract

Research was initiated to investigate early establishment characteristics and germination pattern of Kentucky bluegrass (KB, Poa pratensis L.) under natural room temperature and to analyze differences between alternative and natural conditions for a practical application. Fifteen cultivars of KB were evaluated in the study. Daily and cumulative germination pattern were measured and analyzed on a daily basis. Differences were observed in germination percentage, germination pattern, days to the first germination and days to 75% germination. Germination percentage was variable with cultivars at the end of study. It was 75.75 to 90.25% under natural condition. There were considerable variations in early germination characteristics and germination pattern among KB cultivars according to germination conditions. The first germination in all entries tested was initiated between 6 and 9 DAS (days after seeding) under ISTA (International Seed Testing Association) condition. But it was observed between 9 and 12 DAS under natural condition, being 3 to 5 days later as compared with ISTA condition. On the first date of a germinating process, the germination rate was 0.25% to 25.00% under ISTA condition, while 0.50% to 13.25% under natural condition. Days to the 75% germination were 15.08 to 28.80 DAS under ISTA condition and 17.78 to 28.75 DAS under natural condition. Midnight II, Excursion and Midnight were the fastest cultivars under ISTA condition, while Odyssey the fastest one under natural condition. Regardless of germination condition, the slowest cultivar was Voyager II, being over 4 weeks to 75% germination percentage. For the most cultivars, days to 75% germination under natural room temperature condition were 1 to 8 days slower than under ISTA condition. From this study information on differences in germination characteristics and pattern among cultivars would be usefully applied for KB establishment such as golf course construction. Prior to on-site seeding, a comprehensive germination test is practically recommended due to a possible decline in germination capability during domestic distribution and storage after import.

References

  1. Adams, W. A. and Gibbs, R. J. 1994. Natural turf for sports and amenity: Science and practice. Cambridge: CAB International, UK.
  2. Beard, J. B. 1973. Turfgrass: Science and culture. Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ, USA.
  3. Beard, J. B. 1982. Turf management for golf courses. Burgess Publishing Company, Minneapolis, MN, USA.
  4. Beard, J. B. and Beard, H. J. 2005. Beard's turfgrass encyclopedia for golf courses, grounds, lawns and sports fields. Michigan State University Press, East Lansing, MI, USA.
  5. Bonos, S. A..Meyer, W. A. and Murphy, J. A. 2000. Kentucky bluegrasses make comeback on fairways, roughs. Golf Course Mgt. 68: 59-64.
  6. Fry, J. and Huang, B. 2004. Applied turfgrass science and physiology. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ, USA.
  7. Hanson, A. A..Juska, F. V. and Burton, G. W. 1969. Species and varieties. Agron. Monogr. 14: 370-409. In A. A. Hanson and F. V. Juska (eds.), Turfgrass science. ASA, Madison, WI, USA.
  8. Huff, D. R. 2003. Kentucky bluegrass. pp.27-38. In M. D. Casler and R. R. Duncan (eds.), Turfgrass biology, genetics, and breeding. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ, USA.
  9. Jeon WB. 1997. Regulation for international seed testing association (I). Kor. J. of Turfgrass Sci. 11: 211-264. (in Korean with English summary)
  10. Kim KN. 2012. STM Series I-Introductory turfgrass science. 2nded. Sahmyook Univ. Press, Seoul, Korea. (in Korean)
  11. Kim KN. 2013. STM Series III-Turfgrass establishment. 2nded. Sahmyook Univ. Press, Seoul, Korea. (in Korean)
  12. Kim KN. 2014. Comparison of germination characteristics and daily seed germinating pattern in 15 new cultivars of Kentucky bluegrass grown under alternating temperature conditions. Weed Turf Sci. 3(1): 29-40. (in Korean with English summary) https://doi.org/10.5660/WTS.2014.3.1.29
  13. Kim KN and Jung KW. 2008. Comparison of seed germinating vigor, early germination characteristics, germination speed and germination peak time in new varieties of the third generation of creeping bentgrass under different growing conditions. J. Kor. Env. Res. Reveg. Tech. 11(5): 79-91. (in Korean with English summary)
  14. Kim KN and Jung KW. 2009. Germination characteristics and daily seed germinating pattern of 8 new varieties of perennial ryegrass under alternative conditions required by ISTA. J. Kor. Env. Res. Reveg. Tech. 12(3): 72-82. (in Korean with English summary)
  15. Kim KN and Nam SY. 2003. Comparison of early germinating vigor, germination speed and germination rate of varieties in Poa pratensis L., Lolium perenne L. and Festuca arundinacea Schreb. grown under different growing conditions. Kor. J. Turfgrass Sci. 17(1): 1-12. (in Korean with English summary)
  16. Kim KN.Shim SR.Yoon PS.Han SK..Cho CU and Han KW. 1998. Sports turf recommendation for soccer field with investigation of athletic fields in Japan, Germany, and USA. J. of Natural Sci. of Sahmyook Univ. 3(3): 51-60. (in Korean with English summary)
  17. Korea Sport Sci. Institute. 1998. Establishment and maintenance of turfgrass ground. Korea Sport Sci. Inst., Seoul. (in Korean)
  18. KOWOC (Kor. Organizing Committee for the 2002 FIFA World Cup). 1999. Survey for athletic fields in Japan and Europe for the construction of 2002 world cup soccer stadium. Kor. Organizing Committee for the 2002 FIFA World Cup-Korea/Japan. (in Korean)
  19. KOWOC. 2000a. Comprehensive project report on the establishment of the turfgrass ground of 2002 world cup soccer stadium. Kor. Organizing Committee for the 2002 FIFA World Cup-Korea/Japan. (in Korean)
  20. KOWOC. 2000b. Guidelines to the establishment and maintenance of the turfgrass ground of 2002 world cup soccer stadium. Kor. Organizing Committee for the 2002 FIFA World Cup-Korea/Japan. (in Korean)
  21. Lee JP.Kim SJ.Seo HY.Han IS.Lee SJ.Kim TJ and Kim DH. 2001a. The effect of shade net on summer stress of cool-season turfgrass. Kor. J. Turfgrass Sci. 15(2): 51-64. (in Korean with English summary)
  22. Lee HJ.Song JW and Ku JH. 2001b. Effect of root zone cooling on growth and mineral contents of turfgrasses in simulated athletic field during summer season. Kor. J. of Turfgrass Sci. 15: 169-179. (in Korean with English summary)
  23. Murphy, J. A..Bonos, S. and Perdomo, P. 1997. Classification of Poa pratensis genotypes. Intl. Turf. Soc. Res. J. 8: 1176-1183.
  24. NTEP (National Turfgrass Evaluation Program). 1994. National Kentucky bluegrass test-1990. Progress report 1993. NTEP No. 94-6, National Turfgrass Federation, Inc., Beltsville Agric. Res. Ctr., Beltsville, MD, USA.
  25. NTEP. 1996. National Kentucky bluegrass test-1990. Final report: 1991-95. NTEP No. 96-11, National Turfgrass Federation, Inc., Beltsville Agric. Res. Ctr., Beltsville, MD, USA.
  26. NTEP. 1997. National Kentucky bluegrass test-1995. 1996 Progress report. NTEP No. 97-4. National Turfgrass Federation, Inc., Beltsville Agric. Res. Ctr., Beltsville, MD, USA.
  27. NTEP. 1998 National Kentucky bluegrass test-1995. Progress report 1997. NTEP No. 98-5. National Turfgrass Federation, Inc., Beltsville Agric. Res. Ctr., Beltsville, MD, USA.
  28. NTEP. 1999. National Kentucky bluegrass test-1998. Progress report 1998. NTEP No. 99-8. National Turfgrass Federation, Inc., Beltsville Agric. Res. Ctr., Beltsville, MD, USA.
  29. NTEP. 2000. National Kentucky bluegrass test-1995. Progress report 1999. NTEP No. 00-12. National Turfgrass Federation, Inc., Beltsville Agric. Res. Ctr., Beltsville, MD, USA.
  30. NTEP. 2001. National Kentucky bluegrass test-2000. Progress report 2000. NTEP No. 01-10. National Turfgrass Federation, Inc., Beltsville Agric. Res. Ctr., Beltsville, MD, USA.
  31. NTEP. 2002. National Kentucky bluegrass test-2001. Progress report 2000. NTEP No. 02-1. National Turfgrass Federation, Inc., Beltsville Agric. Res. Ctr., Beltsville, MD, USA.
  32. SAS Institute, Inc. 2001. SAS/STAT User's guide, Version 8.00, SAS Inst., Inc., Cary, NC, USA.
  33. Shim SR and Jeong DY. 2002. Turfgrass selection for soccer fields-A simulation of the Incheon 2002 world cup stadium-J. of the Kor. Inst. of Landscape Architecture 30(2): 88-94. (in Korean with English summary)
  34. Shim SR.Jeong DY and Kim KN. 2000. Planting foundations and turfgrass species adapted to grounds. J. of the Kor. Inst. of Landscape Architecture 28(2): 61-70. (in Korean with English summary)
  35. The Lawn Institute. 1991. Seed. LISTS 69-112. In E. C. Roberts and B. C. Roberts (eds.), Lawn Institute Special Topic Sheets, Tennessee Cumberland Printing Corp., Crossville, TN, USA.
  36. Turgeon, A. J. 2005. Turfgrass management. 7th ed., Prentice-Hall, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ, USA.
  37. Watschke, T. L. and Schmidt, R. E. 1992. Ecological aspects of turf communities. Agron. Monogr. 32: 129-174. In D. V. Waddington, R. N. Carrow and R. C. Shearman (eds.), Turfgrass. ASA-CSSA-SSSA, Madison, WI, USA.