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Effect of Gum-Chewing on Facial Appearance and Stomatognathic System

  • Kim, Joo-Hwan (Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, College of Dentistry, Dankook University) ;
  • Park, Hae-Seo (Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, College of Dentistry, Dankook University) ;
  • Kim, Moon-Young (Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, College of Dentistry, Dankook University) ;
  • Kim, Kyung-Wook (Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, College of Dentistry, Dankook University)
  • Received : 2014.04.28
  • Accepted : 2014.06.16
  • Published : 2014.06.30

Abstract

Purpose: This study was planned to clarify a negative view of chewing gum due to the concern that continuous gum chewing might cause a change in the gonial angle and make the lower facial appearance look square. Materials and Methods: We had 25 adults (13 males and 12 females, with an average of 27.3 years) chew 6 g of gum (spearmint) evenly with both right and left posterior teeth for one hour per day for three months. We then measured their gonial angle, the inclination of occlusal plane, facial height, bone marrow density, and masticatory force before chewing, 1, 2, and 3 month after chewing to verify its significance statistically. Result: The results showed that the gonial angle increased from $122.7^{\circ}$ to $123.3^{\circ}$ (P>0.05), and thus the jaws became slightly slimmer. There was no change in the occlusal plane inclination and facial height. Meanwhile bone marrow density in the mandibular angle and ascending ramus increased from $0.285g/cm^2$ to $0.290g/cm^2$ (P<0.05), and masticatory force also increased by 0.5 kg on the right side and 0.8 kg on the left side (P<0.05). Conclusion: Continuous chewing of gum gives an appropriate exercise effect to the stomatognathic system. As chewing gum has effect on increase bone marrow density without changing the mandibular angle and facial appearance the claim that jaw bone changes to a square jaw through chewing gum is regarded to be groundless.

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