Degradation of Electrode and Membrane in Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell After Water Electrolysis

수전해 반응에 의한 고분자전해질 연료전지 전극과 막의 열화

  • Received : 2014.04.08
  • Accepted : 2014.05.10
  • Published : 2014.12.01


Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells (PEMFC) can generate hydrogen and oxygen from water by electrolysis. But the electrode and polymer electrolyte membrane degrade rapidly during PEM water electrolysis because of high operation voltage over 1.7V. In order to reduce the rate of anode electrode degradation, unsupported $IrO_2$ catalyst was used generally. In this study, Pt/C catalyst for PEMFC was used as a water electrolysis catalyst, and then the degradation of catalyst and membrane were analysed. After water electrolysis reaction in the voltage range from 1.8V to 2.0V, I-V curves, impedance spectra, cyclic voltammograms and linear sweep voltammetry (LSV) were measured at PEMFC operation condition. The degradation rate of electrode and membrane increased as the voltage of water electrolysis increased. The hydrogen yield was 88 % during water electrolysis for 1 min at 2.0V, the performance at 0.6V decreased to 49% due to degradation of membrane and electrode assembly.

고분자전해질 연료전지로 물을 전기분해하여 수소와 산소를 발생시킬 수 있다. 그러나 1.7V 이상의 높은 전압에서 수전해 반응이 일어나므로 전극과 고분자 전해질 막의 열화가 빠르게 진행된다. 수전해 과정에서 anode의 열화를 방지하기 위해 촉매로 지지체 없는 $IrO_2$를 보통 사용하는데 본 연구에서는 고분자전해질 연료전지용 Pt/C 촉매를 수전해 반응에 그대로 사용했을 때 전극과 막의 열화 현상을 분석하였다. 1.8~2.0 V 전압 범위에서 수전해 반응 후 고분자 전해질 연료전지 구동 조건에서 I-V, CV, 임피던스, LSV를 측정했다. 수전해 전압이 높을수록 전극과 막의 열화 속도가 증가하였다. 2.0 V에서 1분 동안 수전해 반응했을 때 수소 수율은 88%였고, 전극과 고분자 막이 열화되어 0.6 V에서 성능이 49% 감소하였다.



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