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Physiological and Psychological Effects of Walking Around and Viewing a Lake in a Forest Environment

산림 내 호수 주변에서의 산책과 경관감상이 인체에 미치는 생리적, 심리적 영향

  • Song, Chorong (Center for Environment, Health and Field Sciences, Chiba University) ;
  • Lee, Juyoung (Korea Forest Service) ;
  • Ikei, Harumi (Center for Environment, Health and Field Sciences, Chiba University) ;
  • Kagawa, Takahide (Forestry and Forest Products Research Institute) ;
  • Miyazaki, Yoshifumi (Center for Environment, Health and Field Sciences, Chiba University) ;
  • Park, Bum-Jin (Department of Environment & Forest Resources, Chungnam National University)
  • 송초롱 (일본 치바대학 환경건강필드과학센터) ;
  • 이주영 (산림청) ;
  • ;
  • ;
  • ;
  • 박범진 (충남대학교 산림환경자원학과)
  • Received : 2014.05.09
  • Accepted : 2015.01.06
  • Published : 2015.03.31

Abstract

The aim of this study was to clarify the physiological and psychological effects of walking around and viewing a lake in a forest environment. The subjects included 11 male Japanese university students (age: $22.0{\pm}1.2$ years) who were randomly assigned to visit either a forest or an urban (control) setting. They were instructed to walk a predetermined 15-min course and to view the setting from a seated position for 15 min. Heart rate variability, heart rate, blood pressure, pulse rate, and salivary cortisol levels were measured to assess the subject's physiological responses to the environment. Four questionnaires (SD method, reports of "refreshed" feeling, POMS, and STAI) were administered to assess the subjects' psychological responses. It was found that walking around and viewing a lake in a forest environment can suppress sympathetic nerve activity, increase parasympathetic nerve activity, and decrease the heart rate, blood pressure, pulse rate, and cortisol levels. In addition, a forest environment can enhance the "comfortable," "soothing," "natural," and "refreshed" feelings, improve the mood state, and reduce anxiety. These results provide scientific evidence of the physiological and psychological effects of forest therapy.

본 연구는 산림 내 호수 주변에서의 산책과 경관감상이 인체에 미치는 생리적, 심리적 영향을 과학적으로 밝혀내고자 수행되었다. 실험지는 일본 아오모리현에 위치한 주니코(十二湖)주변의 산림으로 하였으며, 대조실험은 역 주변의 도시부에서 실시하였다. 실험 대상은 일본인 남자 대학생 11명($22.0{\pm}1.2$세)으로 하였다. 생리평가의 측정지표로 심박변이도, 심장박동수, 혈압, 맥박수 및 타액 중 코티솔 농도를 사용하였으며, 심리평가의 측정지표로 간이형 SD법, 스트레스-리프레쉬감 조사, POMS 및 STAI 상태불안을 사용하였다. 피험자는 산림과 도시에서 각각 1회씩 15분 동안 보행 및 경관감상을 실시하였다. 그 결과, 산림 내 호수 주변에서의 보행 및 경관감상은 도시와 비교하여, 부교감신경활동의 활성, 교감신경활동의 억제, 심장박동수, 혈압, 맥박수의 저하, 타액 중 코티솔 농도의 저하를 유발시키는 것을 알 수 있었다. 심리평가 결과, 쾌적감, 진정감, 자연감 및 리프레쉬감의 상승, 기분상태의 개선, 그리고 불안감의 저하를 보였다. 결론적으로, 산림 내 호수 주변에서의 산책 및 경관감상은 생리적, 심리적 안정 효과를 유발시킨다는 것을 알 수 있었다.

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