DOI QR코드

DOI QR Code

Pinus densiflora Gnarl Inhibits Migration through Suppression of Protein Kinase C in C6 Glioma Cells

C6 Glioma 세포에서 Protein Kinase C Alpha 발현 저해를 통한 송절 약침액의 이주 억제 효과

  • Min, Ilguk (Division of Bio Science, College of Science and Technology, Dongguk University) ;
  • Lee, Kangpa (Division of Bio Science, College of Science and Technology, Dongguk University) ;
  • Chang, Haeryong (Division of Bio Science, College of Science and Technology, Dongguk University) ;
  • Moon, Jinyoung (Deptartment of Acupoint, College of Korean Medicine, Dongguk University)
  • 민일국 (동국대학교 과학기술대학 생명과학과 세포유전학 실험실) ;
  • 이강파 (동국대학교 과학기술대학 생명과학과 세포유전학 실험실) ;
  • 장해룡 (동국대학교 과학기술대학 생명과학과 세포유전학 실험실) ;
  • 문진영 (동국대학교 한의과대학 경혈학교실)
  • Received : 2015.05.18
  • Accepted : 2015.06.01
  • Published : 2015.06.27

Abstract

Objectives : Pinus densiflora gnarl, called Song-Jeol in Korean medicine, has been used to cure inflammatory diseases such as arthritis. In the present study, we evaluated inhibitory property of Song-Jeol pharmacopuncture(SJ) on C6 glioma cell migration. Methods : To evaluate cell viability on C6 glioma cells of SJ, the viability was assessed by using Ez-cytox assay kit. The cell migration was assessed by wound-healing assay and Boyden chamber assay, respectively. LPS-induced NO productions were determined by using the Griess reagent. The expression of iNOS and protein kinase $C(PKC)-{\alpha}$ were estimated by western blotting assay. Results : In the wound-healing assay and Boyden chamber assay, SJ showed a significant inhibition on serum-induced C6 glioma cell migration. In addition, NO production was decreased by SJ through suppression of iNOS expression in LPS-stimulated C6 glioma cell. Futhermore, LPS-induced protein kinase $C(PKC)-{\alpha}$ expression was effectively inhibited by SJ. Conclusions : These results demonstrated that SJ was useful for the suppression of the C6 glioma cell migration.

Acknowledgement

Supported by : Dongguk University

References

  1. Zhou F, Liu H, Zhang X, Shen Y, Zheng D, Zhang A, Lai Y, Li H. Proline-rich protein 11 regulates epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition to promote breast cancer cell invasion. Int J Clin Exp Pathol. 2014 ; 7(12) : 8692-9.
  2. De Vita F, Di Martino N, Fabozzi A, Laterza MM, Ventriglia J, Savastano B, Petrillo A, Gambardella V, Sforza V, Marano L, Auricchio A, Galizia G, Ciardiello F, Orditura M. Clinical management of advanced gastric cancer: the role of new molecular drugs. World J Gastroenterol. 2014 ; 20(40) : 14537-58. https://doi.org/10.3748/wjg.v20.i40.14537
  3. Mariani F, Sena P, Roncucci L. Inflammatory pathways in the early steps of colorectal cancer development. World J Gastroenterol. 2014 ; 20(29) : 9716-31. https://doi.org/10.3748/wjg.v20.i29.9716
  4. Kibler JL, Tursich M, Ma M, Malcolm L, Greenbarg R. Metabolic, autonomic and immune markers for cardiovascular disease in posttraumatic stress disorder. World J Cardiol. 2014 ; 6(6) : 455-61. https://doi.org/10.4330/wjc.v6.i6.455
  5. Brink E. Considering both health-promoting and illness-related factors in assessment of health-related quality of life after myocardial infarction. Open Nurs J. 2012 ; 6 : 90-4. https://doi.org/10.2174/1874434601205010019
  6. Antognelli C, Del Buono C, Ludovini V, Gori S, Talesa VN, Crino L, Barberini F, Rulli A. CYP17, GSTP1, PON1 and GLO1 gene polymorphisms as risk factors for breast cancer: an Italian case-control study. BMC Cancer. 2009 ; 9 : 115. https://doi.org/10.1186/1471-2407-9-115
  7. Ge Y, Meng X, Zhou Y, Zhang J, Ding Y. Positive MACC1 expression correlates with invasive behaviors and postoperative liver metastasis in colon cancer. Int J Clin Exp Med. 2015 ; 8(1) : 1094-100.
  8. Aroner SA, Rosner BA, Tamimi RM, Tworoger SS, Baur N, Joos TO, Hankinson SE. Plasma matrix metalloproteinase 2 levels and breast cancer risk. Cancer Epidemiol. 2015 pii : S1877-7821(15)00046-6. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.canep.2015.02.010
  9. Hertrampf K, Wiltfang J, Katalinic A, Timm O, Wenz HJ. Recent trends in incidence and mortality of oral and pharyngeal cancer in Schleswig-Holstein in Northern Germany. Community Dent Health. 2012 ; 29(4) : 268-73.
  10. Budanov AV. The role of tumor suppressor p53 in the antioxidant defense andmetabolism. Subcell Biochem. 2014 ; 85 : 337-58. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-94-017-9211-0_18
  11. Qi C, Lan H, Ye J, Li W, Wei P, Yang Y, Guo S, Lan T, Li J, Zhang Q, He X, Wang L. Slit2 promotes tumor growth and invasion in chemically induced skin carcinogenesis. Lab Invest. 2014 ; 94(7) : 766-76. https://doi.org/10.1038/labinvest.2014.70
  12. Biswas B, Rastogi S, Khan SA, Mohanti BK, Sharma DN, Sharma MC, Mridha AR, Bakhshi S. Outcomes and prognostic factors for Ewing-family tumors of the extremities. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2014 ; 96(10) : 841-9. https://doi.org/10.2106/JBJS.M.00411
  13. Gartrell BA, Sonpavde G. Emerging drugs for urothelial carcinoma. Expert Opin Emerg Drugs. 2013 ; 18(4) : 477-94. https://doi.org/10.1517/14728214.2013.853741
  14. Dickey ID, Rose PS, Fuchs B, Wold LE, Okuno SH, Sim FH, Scully SP. Dedifferentiated chondrosarcoma: the role of chemotherapy with updated outcomes. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2004 ; 86-A(11) : 2412-8.
  15. Anan'eva II, Malkarov MS, Korsakova NA, Balkanov AS, Dorofeev AE, Kachkov IA, Suchkov SV. Glial tumors of the brain: current aspects of their classification and bases for genetic predisposition. Arkh Patol. 2007 ; 69(1) : 54-60.
  16. Rusthoven CG, Carlson JA, Waxweiler TV, Dally MJ, Baron AE, Yeh N, Gaspar LE, Liu AK, Ney DE, Damek DM, Lillehei KO, Kavanagh BD. The impact of adjuvant radiation therapy for high-grade gliomas by histology in the United States population. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2014 ; 90(4) : 894-902. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijrobp.2014.07.046
  17. Strowd RE 3rd, Holdhoff M, Grossman SA. Chemotherapy for treatment of grade II gliomas. Oncology(Williston Park). 2014 ; 28(12) : 1036-43.
  18. Kim JK, Jin X, Sohn YW, Jin X, Jeon HY, Kim EJ, Ham SW, Jeon HM, Chang SY, Oh SY, Yin J, Kim SH, Park JB, Nakano I, Kim H. Tumoral RANKL activates astrocytes that promote glioma cell invasion through cytokine signaling. Cancer Lett. 2014 ; 353(2) : 194-200. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.canlet.2014.07.034
  19. Zhang W, Yamada H, Sakai N, Niikawa S, Nozawa Y. Enhancement of radiosensitivity by tamoxifen in C6 glioma cells. Neurosurgery. 1992 ; 31(4) : 725-9. https://doi.org/10.1227/00006123-199210000-00016
  20. Lamfers M, Idema S, van Milligen F, Schouten T, van der Valk P, Vandertop P, Dirven C, Noske D. Homing properties of adipose-derived stem cells to intracerebral glioma and the effects of adenovirus infection. Cancer Lett. 2009 ; 274(1) : 78-87. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.canlet.2008.08.035
  21. Paw I, Carpenter RC, Watabe K, Debinski W, Lo HW. Mechanisms regulating glioma invasion. Cancer Lett. 2015 ; pii : S0304-3835(15)00195-0. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.canlet.2015.03.015
  22. Bordonaro S, Romano F, Lanteri E, Cappuccio F, Indorato R, Butera A, D'Angelo A, Ferrau F, Tralongo P. Effect of a structured, active, home-based cancer-treatment program for the management of patients on oral chemotherapy. Patient Prefer Adherence. 2014 ; 8 : 917-23.
  23. Jiang Y, Han W, Shen T, Wang MH. Antioxidant activity and protection from dna damage by water extract from pine(Pinus densiflora) bark. Prev Nutr Food Sci. 2012 ; 17(2) : 116-21. https://doi.org/10.3746/pnf.2012.17.2.116
  24. Jo JR, Park JS, Park YK, Chae YZ, Lee GH, Park GY, Jang BC. Pinus densiflora leaf essential oil induces apoptosis via ROS generation and activation of caspases in YD-8 human oral cancer cells. Int J Oncol. 2012 ; 40(4) : 1238-45. https://doi.org/10.3892/ijo.2011.1263
  25. Kwon JH, Kim JH, Choi SE, Park KH, Lee MW. Inhibitory effects of phenolic compounds from needles of Pinus densiflora on nitric oxide and PGE2 production. Arch Pharm Res. 2010 ; 33(12) : 2011-6. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12272-010-1217-y
  26. Kim GY, Oh YH, Park YM. Acidic polysaccharide isolated from Phellinus linteus induces nitric oxide-mediated tumoricidal activity of macrophages through protein tyrosine kinase and protein kinase C. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2003 ; 309(2) : 399-407. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bbrc.2003.08.018
  27. Hu JG, Wang XF, Zhou JS, Wang FC, Li XW, Lu HZ. Activation of PKC-alpha is required for migration of C6 glioma cells. Acta Neurobiol Exp(Wars). 2010 ; 70(3) : 239-45.
  28. Paul A, Pendreigh RH, Plevin R. Protein kinase C and tyrosine kinase pathways regulate lipopolysaccharide-induced nitric oxide synthase activity in RAW 264.7 murine macrophages. Br J Pharmacol. 1995 ; 114(2) : 482-8. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1476-5381.1995.tb13252.x
  29. Hur J. Dong-eui-bo-gam. Seoul : Bupin Publishing Co., Ltd. 2007 : 832, 860, 2004.
  30. Ahn DK. Illustrated Book of Korean Medicinal Herbs. 331. Seoul : Kyo-Hak Publishing Co., Ltd. 2006 : 346.
  31. Leem SH, Lee KP, Moon JY. The effect of Pinus Densiflora gnarl extract for pharmacopuncture on human LDL oxidation induced by free radical and metal Ion. Korean Journal of Acupuncture. 2011 ; 28(2) : 23-36.
  32. Lee KP, Moon JY. Pinus Densiflora gnarl extract for pharmacopuncture inhibits inflammatory responses through heme oxygenase-1 induction in lipopolysaccharide -stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages. Korean Journal of Acupuncture. 2012 ; 29(1) : 37-46.
  33. Xu X, Malave A. P38 MAPK, but not p42/p44 MAPK mediated inducible nitric oxide synthase expression in C6 glioma cells. Life Sci. 2000 ; 67(26) : 3221-30. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0024-3205(00)00902-4
  34. Mellor H, Parker PJ. The extended protein kinase C superfamily. Biochem J. 1998 ; 9 : 56-65.
  35. do Carmo A, Patricio I, Cruz MT, Carvalheiro H, Oliveira CR, Lopes MC. CXCL12/CXCR4 promotes motility and proliferation of glioma cells. Cancer Biol Ther. 2010 ; 9 : 56-65. https://doi.org/10.4161/cbt.9.1.10342