In this paper, we propose novel seabed sediment classification algorithm using feature obtained by continuous wavelet transform (CWT). Contrast to previous researches using direct reflection coefficient of seabed which is function of frequency and is highly influenced by sediment types, we develop an algorithm using both direct reflection signal and backscattering signal. In order to obtain feature vector, we employ CWT of the signal and obtain histograms extracted from local binary patterns of the scalogram. The proposed algorithm also adopts principal component analysis (PCA) to reduce dimension of the feature vector so that it requires low computational cost to classify seabed sediment. For training and classification, we adopts K-means clustering algorithm which can be done with low computational cost and does not require prior information of the sediment. To verify the proposed algorithm, we obtain field data measured at near Jeju island and show that the proposed classification algorithm has reliable discrimination performance by comparing the classification results with actual physical properties of the sediments.