Fouling Mitigation for Pressurized Membrane of Side-Stream MBR Process at Abnormal Operation Condition

가압식 분리막을 이용한 Side-Stream MBR 공정의 비정상 운전조건에서 막 오염 저감

  • Received : 2016.03.22
  • Accepted : 2016.04.25
  • Published : 2016.06.30


Pressurized membrane used for side-stream MBR process requires fouling control strategy both for normal and abnormal operation conditions for stable operation of the facilities. In this study, $85m^3/day$ of pilot-scale side-stream MBR process was constructed for the evaluation of fouling mitigation by air bubble injection into the membrane module. In addition, fouling phenomena at abnormal operation conditions of low influent and/or loading rate were also investigated. Injection of air bubble was found to be effective in delaying transmembrane pressure (TMP) increase mainly due to scouring effect on the membrane surface, resulting in expanded filtration cycle at a high flux of $40L/m^2{\cdot}h$ (LMH). At abnormal operation condition, injection of PACl (53 mg/L as Al) into the bioreactor showed 19% reduction of TMP increase. However, inhibition of nitrifying bacteria by continuous PACl injection was observed from batch experiments. In contrast, injection of powdered activated carbon (PAC, 0.6 g/L) was able to maintain the initial TMP of $0.2kg/cm^2$ for 5 days at the abnormal conditions. It may have been caused from the adsorption of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS), which was known to be excessively released during growth inhibition condition and act as the major foulants in MBR operations.

공기주입형 가압식 MBR 공정은 일반적인 침지식 MBR 공정과 마찬가지로 정상 운전조건에서 막 오염에 대한 제어 및 관리 기술뿐만 아니라 저유량, 저부하 조건과 같은 비정상 운전조건에서도 시설의 운영에 지장이 없도록 막 오염에 대한 제어 대책이 필요하다. $85m^3$/일 규모의 공기주입형 가압식 MBR 실증시설 운영을 통해 공기주입에 의한 분리막 오염 저감효과와 비상 시 운전조건에서 미생물에 의해 나타날 수 있는 막 오염 문제를 고찰하였다. 가압식 분리막에서 공기의 주입은 분리막 표면에서 공기방울에 의한 scouring 효과에 의해 TMP 상승 기간을 연장시키고 처리의 안정성과 높은 효율의 플럭스($40L/m^2{\cdot}h$ 이상)를 장시간 유지할 수 있는 것으로 분석되었다. 비정상 운전조건에서는 생물반응조에 PACl (53 mg/L as Al)을 주입한 경우 19%의 TMP 상승 감소효과가 있었으나 MBR 공정의 비정상 운전조건 지속에 따른 반복적인 PACl의 주입은 질산화 미생물의 활성도에 영향을 미치게 되어 궁극적으로 질소 처리효율이 악화될 수 있음을 회분식 배양 실험을 통해 확인하였다. 생물반응조에 PAC (0.6 g/L)을 주입한 경우에서는 연속운전 5일 동안 TMP 상승 없이 운전 초기 TMP인 $0.2kg/cm^2$을 유지하여 안정적으로 운전이 가능하였다. 이것은 미생물의 성장 저해조건에서 막 오염 원인물질을 유발하는 EPS와 같은 고분자 물질의 흡착에 따른 것으로 판단된다.



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