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Quality characteristics of distilled spirits by different nuruk-derived yeast

누룩 유래 효모의 종류에 따른 증류주의 품질 특성

  • Lee, Ae-Ran (Korean Alcoholic Beverage Research Team, Korea Food Research Institute) ;
  • Kang, Sun-Hee (Korean Alcoholic Beverage Research Team, Korea Food Research Institute) ;
  • Kim, Hye-Ryun (Korean Alcoholic Beverage Research Team, Korea Food Research Institute) ;
  • Lee, Jang-Eun (Korean Alcoholic Beverage Research Team, Korea Food Research Institute) ;
  • Lee, Eun-Jung (Korean Alcoholic Beverage Research Team, Korea Food Research Institute) ;
  • Kim, Tae-Wan (Korean Alcoholic Beverage Research Team, Korea Food Research Institute)
  • 이애란 (한국식품연구원 우리술연구팀) ;
  • 강선희 (한국식품연구원 우리술연구팀) ;
  • 김혜련 (한국식품연구원 우리술연구팀) ;
  • 이장은 (한국식품연구원 우리술연구팀) ;
  • 이은정 (한국식품연구원 우리술연구팀) ;
  • 김태완 (한국식품연구원 우리술연구팀)
  • Received : 2017.04.07
  • Accepted : 2017.06.19
  • Published : 2017.08.31

Abstract

This study aimed to select a yeast strain for optimizing the quality of distilled spirits. The brewing and distilling properties of 4 KFRI (Korea Food Research Institute) yeasts (Y88-4, Y98-4, Y172-6, Y192-4) and 2 industry yeasts (C1, C2) were compared. For investigating the possibility of using these strains on an industrial scale, diverse analytical methods were applied to assess parameters associated with distilled spirit quality such as alcohol content, pH, total acidity, and soluble solid content. After 11 days of fermentation, the alcohol strength obtained using six yeast strains reached 13.9-16.4% (v/v), while pH was 3.9-4.0, and total acid was 0.40-0.52%. To compare GC-MSD Volatile flavor components, all the distilled spirit samples were diluted to 20% (v/v) alcohol strength. Seven fusel alcohols, 26 esters, 2 acids, and 3 miscellaneous compounds were detected in the distilled spirits. Y88-4 had the most abundant volatile flavor component and scored the highest overall preference in sensory evaluation. After analyzing the various properties of yeasts, strain Y88-4 was finally selected as the best strain for producing distilled spirits.

본 연구는 우리나라 전통 증류식 소주 제조를 위한 최적의 효모를 선발하는 데 목적을 두고 누룩에서 분리한 효모와 시판 소주효모의 발효 및 증류 특성을 비교 분석하였다. 분리한 4개의 균주(Y88-4, Y98-4, Y172-6, Y192-4)와 대조구로 사용한 시판 소주효모 2종(C1, C2)은 Saccharomyces cerevisiae로 동정되었다. 발효액의 최종 알코올 함량은 $13.9{\pm}0.1-16.4{\pm}0.01%$로 C1효모가 가장 높은 알코올 함량을 나타냈고 6개의 실험구의 pH와 총산의 함량은 각각 pH 3.9-4.0, 0.40-0.52 g/100 mL로 정상적인 발효가 진행된 것으로 판단되며 아미노산 함량은 초기 0.10-0.12 g/100 mL에서 발효가 진행됨에 따라 대체로 증가하여 0.26-0.30 g/10 0mL로 나타났다. 유기산의 변화는 옥살산의 경우 Y98-4와 C2에서 발효 말 각각 $0.27{\pm}0.02$, $0.28{\pm}0.03mg/mL$ 검출되었고 말산은 Y88-4를 제외한 모든 실험구 및 대조군에서 최종 발효 시 $0.22{\pm}0.23-0.49{\pm}0.02mg/mL$로 나타났다. 젖산은 C2효모가 발효 말 $0.56{\pm}0.03mg/mL$로 가장 높게 나타났고, 발효과정 중 주요 유기산으로 감칠맛과 관련 있는 석신산은 C2효모가 발효 말 $1.23{\pm}0.12mg/mL$로 가장 높았다. 발효액의 품질저하와 관련 있는 아세트산은 소주효모 C1과 C2에서 각각 $1.87{\pm}0.00$, $1.64{\pm}0.12mg/mL$로 다른 효모에 비해 높게 나타났다. 증류액의 휘발성 향기성분분석 결과 37개의 휘발 성분이 확인되었고 작용기별로 분류 하면 알코올류 7종, 에스터류 26종, 산류 1종, 기타 3종이었다. 높은 area%를 나타낸 것은 에틸알코올, 카프릴산에틸, 아밀알코올 등이다. 증류액의 향기호도 조사결과 Y88-4>C2>Y98-4>C1>Y172-6>Y192-4 순으로 나타났다. 효모의 특성조사를 통해 풍부한 휘발성 성분을 함유하고 있으며 향기호도 조사에서 가장 높은 선호도를 보인 Y88-4가 증류식 소주 제조에 적합한 효모라고 판단된다.

Acknowledgement

Supported by : 농림축산식품부

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