Clinical Efficacy of Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation for Treatment of Depression and Latest Trends in TMS Techniques

반복 경두개자기자극술의 우울증 치료효과 및 최신동향에 대한 고찰

  • Kim, Shin Tae (Yonsei University College of Medicine) ;
  • Kim, Hae Won (Department of Psychiatry, Yonsei University College of Medicine) ;
  • Kim, Se Joo (Department of Psychiatry, Yonsei University College of Medicine) ;
  • Kang, Jee In (Department of Psychiatry, Yonsei University College of Medicine)
  • 김신태 (연세대학교 의과대학) ;
  • 김혜원 (연세대학교 의과대학 정신건강의학교실) ;
  • 김세주 (연세대학교 의과대학 정신건강의학교실) ;
  • 강지인 (연세대학교 의과대학 정신건강의학교실)
  • Received : 2017.06.01
  • Accepted : 2017.06.15
  • Published : 2017.08.31


Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) is a non-invasive neuromodulation technique which can change cortical excitability in targeted area by producing magnetic field pulses with an electromagnetic coil. rTMS treatment has been used to treat various neuropsychiatric disorders including depression. In this review, we evaluate the literature on rTMS for depression by assessing its efficacy on different subtypes of depression and different technical parameters. In particular, we focus on the results of randomized clinical trials and meta-analyses for depression after the US Food and Drug Administration approval in 2008, which acknowledged its efficacy and acceptability. We also review the new forms of rTMS therapy including deep TMS, theta-burst stimulation, and magnetic seizure therapy (MST) that have been under recent investigation. High frequency rTMS over left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), low frequency rTMS over right DLPFC, or bilateral rTMS is shown to be effective and acceptable in treatment for patients with non-psychotic, unipolar depression either as monotherapy or adjuvant. Deep TMS, theta-burst stimulation and MST are promising new TMS techniques which warrant further research.

본 종설에서는 우울증에서의 rTMS 임상연구를 임상특성과 TMS 적용방법을 고려하여 체계적으로 고찰하였으며 새로운 TMS 치료기법에 대해 살펴보았다. rTMS는 항우울제에 반응이 적은 단극성 우울증 환자의 치료에 병용 혹은 단독요법으로 사용될 수 있는 안전하고 비침습적인 뇌조절술이다. rTMS는 고빈도 좌측 DLPFC, 저빈도 우측 DLPFC, 그리고 양측성 DLPFC 적용방법이 비슷한 수준으로 허위자극에 비해 유의하게 항우울효과를 가지고 있다. 그러나 치료저항성 단극성 우울증에 대한 항우울효과 크기는 작았다. 또한 정신병적 증상이 동반된 우울증의 치료와 양극성 장애의 우울삽화에 대해서는 치료효과가 불분명하다. 기존 rTMS의 항우울효과 크기는 작은 정도로 그 효과를 증진시키기 위해 고용량의 자극, 보다 깊이 자극할 수 있는 코일을 이용한 rTMS 치료, 표적영역에 보다 정확하게 코일을 위치시키는 신경항법 등을 이용한 TMS 적용 등의 새로운 시도들이 진행되고 있다. 또한 세타돌발자극과 자기경련치료와 같은 새로운 치료기법을 이용한 시도가 우울증 치료의 새로운 장을 열고 있다. 비록 현재까지 rTMS의 항우울효과가 만족할 만한 수준은 아니지만 임상양상을 세분화한 치료적용과 개선된 치료기법의 적용 등을 통해 더 많은 후속 연구가 이루어질 필요가 있다. 또한 여러 형태의 TMS 기법에 대해 잘 설계된 허위자극에 대한 통제연구뿐만 아니라 서로의 비교연구를 통해 우울증 치료에서의 근거수준을 높일 수 있을 것으로 기대한다.



Supported by : Korea Health Industry Development Institute (KHIDI)


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