DOI QR코드

DOI QR Code

Paradigm Shift in Policy of Soil Environment Conservation in Korea

우리나라 토양환경보전 정책의 패러다임 전환

  • Park, Yong-Ha (Korea Environment Institute (KEI)) ;
  • Yang, JaeE (Dept. of Biological Environment, Kangwon National University)
  • 박용하 (한국환경정책평가연구원) ;
  • 양재의 (강원대학교 환경융합학부 바이오자원환경학과)
  • Received : 2018.05.24
  • Accepted : 2018.06.26
  • Published : 2018.06.30

Abstract

This paper reviews the soil conservation policies (SCP) in the global community and suggests the improved options in SCP in Korea. Soil Environment Conservation Act in Korea states soil is a valuable natural resource and it's value should be enhanced to provide the benefits that soil ecosystem can offer to people. However, SCP in Korea limits its application to not only the scope of soil environment but also the issues on soil pollution. The SCPs in the advanced countries have shifted their scopes from soil environment to soil ecosystem, put emphasis on the conservation of soil health rather than soil quality, and set the goals to optimize the soil ecosystem services to people while minimizing the soil threats. In this context, the soil security initiative was recently proposed to accomplish this goal while employing the nexus concept to bridge the soil ecosystem services with water, atmosphere, climate and biodiversity. Therefore, the key policies in soil conservation in Korea should expand the scope from soil environment to soil ecosystem, focus on soil health management, and develop the holistic governance among diverse stakeholder to maximize the soil ecosystem services. Soil ecosystem should be secured by national soil policies for human health.

Acknowledgement

Grant : OECD 선진국 토양지하수 환경정책 패러다임 발굴을 통한 국내 정책 사업 연구기획, 한국형 표토 침식 조사 평가 기술개발

Supported by : 한국환경산업기술원, GAIA, 강원대학교

References

  1. Bundesamt fur Naturschutz (National Agency for Nature Protection), 2010, Statistisches Bundesamt. Bundesamt fur Naturschutz.
  2. CBD/COP (Conference of the Parties to the Convention on Biological Diversity), 2006, Decision adopted by the Conference of the Parties to the Convention on Biological Diversity at its eighth meeting VIII/23. Agricultural biodiversity cross-cutting initiative on biodiversity for food and nutrition, UNEP/CBD/COP/Dec/VIII/23, https://www.cbd.int, [accessed 2016.8.16].
  3. Chae, Y.E., Kim, S.W., Kwak, J.I., Yoon, Y.D., Jeong, S.W., and An, Y.J., 2015, A comparative study of assessment techniques for soil ecosystem health: Focusing on assessment factors of soil health, J. Soil Groundw. Environ., 20(3), 15-24. https://doi.org/10.7857/JSGE.2015.20.3.015
  4. Choi, J.Y., Cho, S.H., Kim, J.W., Lee, M.S., Han, C.K., Ko, J.W., Cheon, S.H., and Lee, S.M., 2013, Investigation and Improvement Plan of Impermeable Area in Korea, Ministry of Environment (ME), Korea Environment Corporation (KECO), Sejong.
  5. Council of Europe, 1972, European Soil Charter, Committee of Ministers, Council of Europe, Strasbourg.
  6. Council of Europe, 1990, Recommendation No. R Env(90) 1 of the Committee of Ministers to member states on the European Conservation Strategy, The 6th European Ministerial Conference on the Environment, Council of Europe, Strasbourg.
  7. Difference Between Similar Terms and Objects, 2017, Difference Between environment and ecosystem, http://www.differencebetween.net, [accessed 2017.11.13].
  8. Dokuchaev, V., 1897, Collection des sols du professeur Docoutschaev et de ses eleves, exposee au Musee mineralogique de l'Universite a St-Petersbourg," St.-Ptb.: impr. Evdokimov, p17.
  9. Doran, J.W. and Zeiss, M.R., 2000, Soil health and sustainability: Managing the biotic component of soil quality, Appl. Soil Ecology 15, 311.
  10. EC (European Commission), 2002, Communication from the Commission to the Council, the European Parliament, the economic and social committee and the committee of the regions, Towards a Thematic Strategy for Soil Protection, European Commission, Brussels.
  11. EC, 2007, Environment fact sheet: Soil protection-a new policy for the EU, European Commission, Brussels.
  12. EC, 2011, Report on best practices for limiting soil sealing and mitigating its effects, European Commission, Brussels.
  13. EC JRC (European Commission Joint Research Centre), 2011-2012, European Environment Information and Observation Network (EIO-NET), EEA and JRC Press, Brussels.
  14. EEA and JRC (European Environment Agency and Joint Research Centre), 2010, SOER (The European Environment State and Outlook), EEA and JRC Press, Brussels.
  15. ESDAC (European Soil Data Centre), 2016, Soil Susceptibility to Compaction, http://eusoils.jrc.ec.europa.eu/themes/soil-susceptibility-compaction, [2016.8.16].
  16. German Federal Ministry for the Environment and Nature Protection and Nuclear Safety, 2002, German Federal Government Soil Protection Report, Bundestags-Drucksache 14/9566.
  17. Hanza, M. and Anderson, W., 2005, Soil compaction in cropping systems. A review of the nature, causes and possible solutions, Soil and Till. Res., 82, 121-145. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.still.2004.08.009
  18. Hoff, H., 2011, The water, energy and food security nexus, Understanding the nexus, the Bonn 2011 conference, Stockholm Environment Institute, Stockholm.
  19. IASS (Institute for Advanced Sustainability Studies), 2015, IASS 2015 Annual International Symposium on Future Visions. IASS, Potsdam.
  20. ICSU and ISSC (International Council for Science, International Social Science Council). 2015. Review of the Sustainable Development Goals: The Science Perspective. International Council for Science (ICSU), Paris.
  21. Jeffery, S., Gardi, C., Jones, A., Montanarella, L., Marmo, L., Miko, L., Ritz K., Peres, G., Rombke, J., and Putten, W.H., 2010, European Atlas of Soil Biodiversity, Publications Office of the European Union, Luxembourg.
  22. Karlen, D.L., Andrews, S.S., and Doran, J.W., 2001, Soil quality: Current concepts and applications, Advances in Agronomy, 74, 1-40.
  23. Karlen, D.L., Andrews, S.S., Weinhold, B.J., and Doran, J.W., 2003, Soil quality: Humankind's foundation for survival, J. Soil and Water Conser., 58, 171-179.
  24. Karlen, D.L., Mausbach, M.J., Doran, J.W., Cline, R.G., Harris, R.F., and Schuman, G.E., 1997, Soil quality: A concept, definition and framework for evaluation. Soil Sci. Soc. America, 61, 4-10. https://doi.org/10.2136/sssaj1997.03615995006100010001x
  25. Kibblewhite, M., Rit, K., and Swift, M. 2008, Soil health in agricultural systems, Phil. Trans. R. Soc. B., 363, 685-701. https://doi.org/10.1098/rstb.2007.2178
  26. Koch, A., McBratney, Adams, A.M., Field, D., Hill, R., Crawford, J., Minasny, B., Lal, R., Abbott, L., O'Donnell, A., Angers, D., Baldock, J., Bardier, E., Binkley, D., Parton, W., Wall, D.H., Bird, M., Bouma, J., Chenu, C., Flora, C.B., Goulding, K., Grunwald, S., Jastrow, J., Hempel, J., Lehmann, J., Lorenz, K., Morgan, C.L., Rice, C.W., Whitehead, D., Young, I., and Zimmermann, M., 2013, Soil security: Solving the global soil crisis, In: Held D., Nag, E.M., Rodrik, D., (ed.), Global policy, Durham University and John Wiley and Sons, Ltd., Durham.
  27. Kurian, M. and Ardakanian, R., 2015, Governing the Nexus Water, Soil and Waste Resources Considering Global Change, Springer International Publishing.
  28. Laird, D., 2016, The Role of Soil Security in the Food-Energy-Water-Climate Nexus, The 2nd Global Soil Security Conference, Paris.
  29. Lal, R., 2015, The Nexus Approach to Managing Water, Soil and Waste under Changing Climate and Growing Demands on Natural Resources, In: Kurian, M. and Ardakanian, R. (ed.), Governing the Nexus Water, Soil and Waste Resources Considering Global Change, Dresden, United Nations University (UNU-FLORES). Germany.
  30. Ledbetter, K.. 2015, Soil security vital for the health, wealth of the world, http://today.agrilife.org/2015/06/22/soilsecurityvitalforthehealthwealthoftheworld/.pdf, [accessed 2016.1.22].
  31. Lee, S.J., Kim, J.J., and Jeong, S.W., 2016, Analysis of the organic matter content for soil samples taken at the new points of Korea soil quality monitoring network, J. Kor. Soc. Environ. Eng., 38(12), 641-646. https://doi.org/10.4491/KSEE.2016.38.12.641
  32. McBratney, A., Field, D., and Koch, A., 2014, The dimensions of soil security, Geoderma 213, 203-213. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.geoderma.2013.08.013
  33. ME (Ministry of Environment), 2004, New regulations about Amendment of The Soil Environmental Conservation Act, Ministry of Environment (ME), Gwacheon.
  34. ME (Ministry of Environment), 2009, Basic Plan for Soil Conservation, Ministry of Environment (ME), Gwacheon.
  35. ME (Ministry of Environment), 2013, Comprehensive Surface Soil Conservation Plan (2013-2017) for Preventive Management of a Finite Resource Surface Soil, Ministry of Environment ME), Sejong.
  36. ME (Ministry of Environment)), 2015, Environmental White Book, Ministry of Environment (ME), Sejong.
  37. MEA (Millenium Ecosystem Assessment), 2005, Ecosystems and human well-being: Biodiversity synthesis, Island Press, Washington, D.C.
  38. MGL and KLRI (Ministry of Government Legislation and Korea Legislation Research Institute), 2011, Comment on Soil Environmental Conservation Act, Ministry of Government Legislation, Seoul.
  39. Muller, A., Janetschek, H., and Weigelt, J., 2015, Towards a governance heuristic for sustainable development, Current Opinion in Environ. Sustainability, 15, 49-56. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cosust.2015.08.007
  40. National Institute of Meteorological Research (NIMR), 2009, Understanding Climate Change, 6th, National Institute of Meteorological Research, JeJu.
  41. Official Journal of the European Union, 2013, General Union Environment Action Programme to 2020 'Living well, within the limits of our planet'," Decision No 1386/2013/EU of the European Parliament and of the Council, European Union, Brussels, p171-200.
  42. Ok, Y.S., Yang, J.E., Park, Y.H., Jung, Y.S., Yoo, K.R., and Park, C.S., 2005, Framework on soil quality indicator selection and assessment for the sustainable soil management, Environ. Policy Research, 4(1), 93-112.
  43. Orgiazzi, A., Bardgett, R.D., and Barrios, E., 2016, Global Soil Biodiversity Atlas, Publications Office of the European Union, Luxembourg.
  44. Panagos, P., Hiederer, R., Van Liedekerke, M., and Bampa, F., 2013b, Estimating soil organic carbon in Europe based on data collected through an European network, Ecolog. Indic. 24, 439-450. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecolind.2012.07.020
  45. Panagos, P., Van Liedekerke, M.H., Yigini, Y., and Montanarella, L., 2013a, Contaminated Sites in Europe: Review of the Current Situation Based on Data Collected through a European Network, J. Environ. Pub. Health. DOI:10.1155/2013/158764. https://doi.org/10.1155/2013/158764
  46. Pankhurst, C.E., Double, B.M., and Gupta, V., 1997, Biological indicators of soil health: Synthesis. In: Pankhurst, C., Double, B. and Gupta, V., (ed.), Biological Indicators of Soil Health, CAB International, Wallingford.
  47. Park Y.H. and Lee S.H., 1995, Pollution prevention standards and management methods for soil environmental conservation, Korea Environmental Technology Research Institute (KETRI), Seoul.
  48. Park, Y.H., 2017, Analysis and improvement of Korea's policy on risk assessment of soil pollution site, Environ. Policy, 25(2), 183-198.
  49. Prager, K., 2008, Soil conservation and policy measures finding from eight case studies across Europe, ECOMIT Conference, Piestany:
  50. Prokop G., Jobstmann, H., and Schonbauer, A., 2011, Overview on best practices for limiting soil sealing and mitigating its effects, EU-27(Environment Agency Austria), European Union, Brussels.
  51. Puget, P., Lal, R., Izaurralde, C., Post, M., and Owens, L., 2005, Stock and distribution of total and corn-derived soil organic carbon in aggregate and primary particle fractions for different land use and soil management practices, Soil Sci., 170(4), 256-279. https://doi.org/10.1097/00010694-200504000-00004
  52. Reisch, M. and Bearden, D., 1997, Superfund Fact Book: Congressional Research Service Report, National Council for Science and the Environment, Washington D.C.
  53. Singer, M. and Munns, D., 2006, Soils: An Introduction, 6th, Pearson Education, London.
  54. Soussana, J.F., 2016, The 4p1000 initiative, The 2nd Global Soil Security Conference, Paris.
  55. Stubb, M., 2012, Conservation Compliance and U.S. Farm Policy Congressional Research Service, http://www.crs.govR42459, [accessed 2016.1.22].
  56. Tansley, A, 1935, The use and abuse of vegetational concepts and terms, Ecology, 16(3), 284-307. https://doi.org/10.2307/1930070
  57. Turbe, A., De Toni, A., and Benito, P., 2010, Soil biodiversity: Functions, threats and tools for policy makers. Publications Office of the European Union, Luxembourg.
  58. UK DEFRA (Department of Food, Environment and Regional Affair), 2009a, Safeguarding our Soils A Strategy for England, DEFRA, London.
  59. UK DEFRA, 2009b, Construction Code of Practice for the Sustainable Use of Soils on Construction Sites, DEFRA, London.
  60. UK DEFRA, 2009c, Soil Strategy for England Supporting Evidence Paper, DEFRA, London.
  61. UK EA (Environment Agency), 2004, The State of Soils in England and Wales, Environment Agency, London.
  62. UK House of Commons Environmental Audit Committee, 2016, Soil Health First Report of Session 2016-17, House of Commons Publication, London.
  63. UN FAO (Food and Agriculture Organisation), 2008, An international technical workshop Investing in sustainable crop intensification: The case for improving soil health, Integ. Crop Manag., 6(2008), 22-2.
  64. UN FAO, 2017, Voluntary Guidelines for Sustainable Soil Management, UN FAO, Rome Italy.
  65. UNGA (United Nations General Assembly), 2014, Resolution adopted by the General Assembly on 20 December 2013 on the report of the Second Committee (A/68/444)] 68/232, World Soil Day and International Year of Soils A/RES/68/232 (7 February 2014), UNGA, New York.
  66. USDA NRCS (US Department of Agriculture Natural Resources Conservation Service), 1995, Soil Quality, RCA Issue Brief No.5., NRCS, Washington D.C..
  67. Van Liedekerke, M., Prokop, G., Rabl-Berger, S., Kibblewhite, M., and Louwagie C., 2014, Progress in the management of Contaminated Sites in Europe, Joint Research Centre of the European Commission, Brussel.
  68. Yang, J.E. 2015, Soil and groundwater pollution prevention technology development project-Research Center of Surface Soil Resources inventory and Integration (SSORii), Korea Environment Industry Technology Institute (KEITI), Seoul.