Childhood diabetes in India

  • Kalra, Sanjay (Department of Endocrinology, Bharti Hospital) ;
  • Dhingra, Mudita (Department of Pediatric Endocrinology, Radha Kishan Hospital)
  • Received : 2018.06.11
  • Accepted : 2018.06.19
  • Published : 2018.09.30


This review describes the epidemiology of childhood diabetes in India. It focuses on the incidence and prevalence of type 1 diabetes and its complications and comorbid conditions. The review also covers data related to type 2 diabetes, glucose intolerance, and monogenic diabetes from India. A brief discussion regarding unique contributions from India to the world literature is included. The topics discussed include use of camel milk as adjuvant therapy in type 1 diabetes, relevance of the A1/A2 hypothesis, and comprehensive clinico-etiopathological classification of type 1 diabetes.


  1. Kumar KM, Azad K, Zabeen B, Kalra S. Type 1 diabetes in children: Fighting for a place under the sun. Indian J Endocrinol Metab 2012;16 Suppl 1:S1-3.
  2. Ramachandran A, Snehalatha C, Abdul Khader OM, Joseph TA, Viswanathan M. Prevalence of childhood diabetes in an urban population in south India. Diabetes Res Clin Pract 1992;17:227-31.
  3. Ramachandran A, Snehalatha C, Krishnaswamy CV. Incidence of IDDM in children in urban population in southern India. Madras IDDM Registry Group Madras, South India. Diabetes Res Clin Pract 1996;34:79-82.
  4. Kumar P, Krishna P, Reddy SC, Gurappa M, Aravind SR, Munichoodappa C. Incidence of type 1 diabetes mellitus and associated complications among children and young adults: results from Karnataka Diabetes Registry 1995-2008. J Indian Med Assoc 2008;106:708-11.
  5. Kalra S, Kalra B, Sharma A. Prevalence of type 1 diabetes mellitus in Karnal district, Haryana state, India. Diabetol Metab Syndr 2010;2:14.
  6. Kumar KM. Incidence trends for childhood type 1 diabetes in India. Indian J Endocrinol Metab 2015;19(Suppl 1):S34-5.
  7. Ramachandran A, Snehalatha C, Sasikala R, Satyavani K, Vijay V. Vascular complications in young Asian Indian patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus. Diabetes Res Clin Pract 2000;48:51-6.
  8. Bhadada SK, Kochhar R, Bhansali A, Dutta U, Kumar PR, Poornachandra KS, et al. Prevalence and clinical profile of celiac disease in type 1 diabetes mellitus in north India. J Gastroenterol Hepatol 2011;26:378-81.
  9. Kalra S, Kalra B, Chatley G. Prevalence of hypothyroidism in pediatric type 1 diabetes mellitus in Haryana, Northern India. Thyroid Res Pract 2012;9:12-4
  10. Borkar VV, Devidayal, Verma S, Bhalla AK. Low levels of vitamin D in North Indian children with newly diagnosed type 1 diabetes. Pediatr Diabetes 2010;11:345-50.
  11. Sahay R, Baruah MP, Kalra S. Health economics in India: the case of diabetes mellitus. Indian J Endocrinol Metab 2014;18:135-7.
  12. Shobhana R, Rama Rao P, Lavanya A, Williams R, Padma C, Vijay V, et al. Costs incurred by families having Type 1 diabetes in a developing country--a study from Southern India. Diabetes Res Clin Pract 2002;55:45-8.
  13. Narayan KM, Fagot-Campagna A, Imperatore G. Type 2 diabetes in children: a problem lurking for India? Indian Pediatr 2001;38:701-4.
  14. Ramachandran A, Snehalatha C, Satyavani K, Sivasankari S, Vijay V. Type 2 diabetes in Asian-Indian urban children. Diabetes Care 2003;26:1022-5.
  15. Chowdhury S, Ghosh S. Epidemiology of childhood diabetes. In: Das AK, Kalra S, editors. CDiC textbook of pediatric diabetes. New Delhi (India): Jaypee, 2018:8-20.
  16. Ranjani H, Sonya J, Anjana RM, Mohan V. Prevalence of glucose intolerance among children and adolescents in urban South India (ORANGE-2). Diabetes Technol Ther 2013;15:13-9.
  17. Varadarajan P, Sangaralingam T, Senniappan S, Jahnavi S, Radha V, Mohan V. Clinical profile and outcome of infantile onset diabetes mellitus in southern India. Indian Pediatr 2013;50:759-63.
  18. Jahnavi S, Poovazhagi V, Mohan V, Bodhini D, Raghupathy P, Amutha A, et al. Clinical and molecular characterization of neonatal diabetes and monogenic syndromic diabetes in Asian Indian children. Clin Genet 2013;83:439-45.
  19. Yajnik CS. Early life origins of insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes in India and other Asian countries. J Nutr 2004;134:205-10.
  20. Krishnaveni GV, Veena SR, Hill JC, Kehoe S, Karat SC, Fall CH. Intrauterine exposure to maternal diabetes is associated with higher adiposity and insulin resistance and clustering of cardiovascular risk markers in Indian children. Diabetes Care 2010;33:402-4.
  21. Kalra S, Gupta Y, Kumar A. Prevention of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). J Pak Med Assoc 2016;66(9 Suppl 1):S107-9.
  22. Sodhi M, Mukesh M, Kataria RS, Mishra BP, Joshii BK. Milk proteins and human health: A1/A2 milk hypothesis. Indian J Endocrinol Metab 2012;16:856.
  23. Agarwal RP, Swami SC, Beniwal R, Kochar DK, Sahani MS, Tuteja FC, et al. Effect of camel milk on glycemic control, risk factors and diabetes quality of life in type-1 diabetes: a randomized prospective controlled study. J Camel Pract Res 2003;10:45-50.
  24. Kalra S, Gupta Y, Khandelwal D. Classification of type 1 diabetes (T1DM). J Pak Med Assoc 2018;68:318-21.
  25. Kalra S, Gupta Y. The gluco-phenotype. J Pak Med Assoc 2016;66:118-9.