Masticatory Performance Measured with a Chewing Gum Containing Spherical Resinous Microparticles

  • Kanazawa, Toshiya (Department of Oral Health Promotion, Tokyo Medical and Dental University) ;
  • Zaitsu, Takashi (Department of Oral Health Promotion, Tokyo Medical and Dental University) ;
  • Ueno, Masayuki (Department of Oral Health Promotion, Tokyo Medical and Dental University) ;
  • Kawaguchi, Yoko (Department of Oral Health Promotion, Tokyo Medical and Dental University)
  • Received : 2018.10.22
  • Accepted : 2018.11.02
  • Published : 2018.12.31


Objective: This study aimed to investigate the factors associated with masticatory performance, as measured with a chewing gum containing spherical resinous microparticles, and to evaluate the method by examining the relationship with self-reported masticatory status. Methods: The participants in this study comprised 903 industrial workers (mean age, $42.2{\pm}11.6years$). A questionnaire was administered to assess self-reported masticatory status. The masticatory performance score was calculated by counting the number of particles in the chewing gum. Clinical oral examinations were administered. Multiple linear regression analysis was conducted on the masticatory performance scores to examine the related factors. Analysis of covariance was conducted to investigate the association between the masticatory performance score and the self-reported masticatory status. Results: Significant predictors of the masticatory performance score were sex (p<0.001), age (p<0.001), decayed teeth (p=0.009), total-functional tooth units (p<0.001), periodontitis (p=0.003), and malocclusion (p=0.011). The relationship between the masticatory performance score and the self-reported masticatory status was attenuated after controlling for confounding factors. Conclusion: The masticatory performance increased with age and decreased as the oral health status worsened. Using this chewing gum method partly, but not comprehensively, reflects masticatory performance. Therefore, various masticatory performance-related indexes should be employed to measure masticatory performance accurately.


Supported by : Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare


  1. Hollis JH. The effect of mastication on food intake, satiety and body weight. Physiol Behav 2018;193:242-5.
  2. Miquel-Kergoat S, Azais-Braesco V, Burton-Freeman B, Hetherington MM. Effects of chewing on appetite, food intake and gut hormones: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Physiol Behav 2015;151:88-96.
  3. Kikui M, Ono T, Kokubo Y, Kida M, Kosaka T, Yamamoto M, et al. Relationship between metabolic syndrome and objective masticatory performance in a Japanese general population: the Suita study. J Dent 2017;56:53-7.
  4. Yamazaki T, Yamori M, Asai K, Nakano-Araki I, Yamaguchi A, Takahashi K, et al. Mastication and risk for diabetes in a Japanese population: a cross-sectional study. PLoS One 2013;8:e64113.
  5. Heo SY, Lee EH. The correlation among systemic health, hypertension and oral health of Korean adults. Int J Clin Prev Dent 2018;14:112-8.
  6. Nishigawa K, Suzuki Y, Matsuka Y. Masticatory performance alters stress relief effect of gum chewing. J Prosthodont Res 2015;59:262-7.
  7. Ueno M, Yanagisawa T, Shinada K, Ohara S, Kawaguchi Y. Masticatory ability and functional tooth units in Japanese adults. J Oral Rehabil 2008;35:337-44.
  8. Ueno M, Yanagisawa T, Shinada K, Ohara S, Kawaguchi Y. Category of functional tooth units in relation to the number of teeth and masticatory ability in Japanese adults. Clin Oral Investig 2010;14:113-9.
  9. Ueno M, Shimazu T, Sawada N, Tsugane S, Kawaguchi Y. Validity of self-reported tooth counts and masticatory status study of a Japanese adult population. J Oral Rehabil 2018;45:393-8.
  10. Abrahamsson C, Henrikson T, Bondemark L, Ekberg E. Masticatory function in patients with dentofacial deformities before and after orthognathic treatment: a prospective, longitudinal, and controlled study. Eur J Orthod 2015;37:67-72.
  11. Decerle N, Nicolas E, Hennequin M. Chewing deficiencies in adults with multiple untreated carious lesions. Caries Res 2013;47:330-7.
  12. Fontijn-Tekamp FA, van der Bilt A, Abbink JH, Bosman F. Swallowing threshold and masticatory performance in dentate adults. Physiol Behav 2004;83:431-6.
  13. Hatch JP, Shinkai RS, Sakai S, Rugh JD, Paunovich ED. Determinants of masticatory performance in dentate adults. Arch Oral Biol 2001;46:641-8.
  14. Laird MF, Vogel ER, Pontzer H. Chewing efficiency and occlusal functional morphology in modern humans. J Hum Evol 2016;93:1-11.
  15. Lepley C, Throckmorton G, Parker S, Buschang PH. Masticatory performance and chewing cycle kinematics-are they related? Angle Orthod 2010;80:295-301.
  16. Omo JO, Sede MA, Esan TA. Masticatory efficiency of shortened dental arch subjects with removable partial denture: a comparative study. Niger J Clin Pract 2017;20:459-63.
  17. Pereira LJ, Gazolla CM, Magalhaes IB, Dominguete MH, Vilela GR, Castelo PM, et al. Influence of periodontal treatment on objective measurement of masticatory performance. J Oral Sci 2012;54:151-7.
  18. Rios-Vera V, Sanchez-Ayala A, Senna PM, Watanabe-Kanno G, Cury AA, Garcia RC. Relationship among malocclusion, number of occlusal pairs and mastication. Braz Oral Res 2010;24:419-24.
  19. van der Bilt A, Fontijn-Tekamp FA. Comparison of single and multiple sieve methods for the determination of masticatory performance. Arch Oral Biol 2004;49:193-8.
  20. Anastassiadou V, Heath MR. The development of a simple objective test of mastication suitable for older people, using chewing gums. Gerodontology 2001;18:79-86.
  21. Ikebe K, Matsuda K, Kagawa R, Enoki K, Okada T, Yoshida M, et al. Masticatory performance in older subjects with varying degrees of tooth loss. J Dent 2012;40:71-6.
  22. Ikebe K, Matsuda K, Kagawa R, Enoki K, Yoshida M, Maeda Y, et al. Association of masticatory performance with age, gender, number of teeth, occlusal force and salivary flow in Japanese older adults: is ageing a risk factor for masticatory dysfunction? Arch Oral Biol 2011;56:991-6.
  23. Kosaka T, Ono T, Kida M, Kikui M, Yamamoto M, Yasui S, et al. A multifactorial model of masticatory performance: the Suita study. J Oral Rehabil 2016;43:340-7.
  24. Schimmel M, Christou P, Miyazaki H, Halazonetis D, Herrmann FR, Muller F. A novel colourimetric technique to assess chewing function using two-coloured specimens: validation and application. J Dent 2015;43:955-64.
  25. Uesugi H, Shiga H. Relationship between masticatory performance using a gummy jelly and masticatory movement. J Prosthodont Res 2017;61:419-25.
  26. Elgestad Stjernfeldt P, Wardh I, Trulsson M, Faxen Irving G, Bostrom AM. Methods for objectively assessing clinical masticatory performance: protocol for a systematic review. Syst Rev 2017;6:20.
  27. van der Bilt A. Assessment of mastication with implications for oral rehabilitation: a review. J Oral Rehabil 2011;38:754-80.
  28. Alkan A, Keskiner I, Arici S, Sato S. The effect of periodontitis on biting abilities. J Periodontol 2006;77:1442-5.
  29. Van't Spijker A, Rodriguez JM, Kreulen CM, Bronkhorst EM, Bartlett DW, Creugers NH. Prevalence of tooth wear in adults. Int J Prosthodont 2009;22:35-42.
  30. Bourdiol P, Abou El Karam S, Martin JF, Nicolas E, Mioche L. Age and gender-related differences in premolar and molar functional areas. J Oral Rehabil 2007;34:251-8.
  31. Kim SK, Kim KN, Chang IT, Heo SJ. A study of the effects of chewing patterns on occlusal wear. J Oral Rehabil 2001;28:1048-55.
  32. Japan Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare. Report on the survey of dental diseases 2016 [Internet]. Tokyo: Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare, Japan [cited 2018 Oct 19]. Available from: