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The effect of nanoemulsified methionine and cysteine on the in vitro expression of casein in bovine mammary epithelial cells

  • Kim, Tae-Il (Dairy Science Division, National Institute of Animal Science, Rural Development Administration) ;
  • Kim, Tae-Gyun (Department of Food and Biotechnology, Korea University) ;
  • Lim, Dong-Hyun (Dairy Science Division, National Institute of Animal Science, Rural Development Administration) ;
  • Kim, Sang-Bum (Dairy Science Division, National Institute of Animal Science, Rural Development Administration) ;
  • Park, Seong-Min (Dairy Science Division, National Institute of Animal Science, Rural Development Administration) ;
  • Lim, Hyun-Joo (Dairy Science Division, National Institute of Animal Science, Rural Development Administration) ;
  • Kim, Hyun-Jong (Dairy Science Division, National Institute of Animal Science, Rural Development Administration) ;
  • Ki, Kwang-Seok (Dairy Science Division, National Institute of Animal Science, Rural Development Administration) ;
  • Kwon, Eung-Gi (Hanwoo Research Institute, National Institute of Animal Science, Rural Development Administration) ;
  • Kim, Young-Jun (Department of Food and Biotechnology, Korea University) ;
  • Mayakrishnan, Vijayakumar (Dairy Science Division, National Institute of Animal Science, Rural Development Administration)
  • Received : 2018.03.15
  • Accepted : 2018.07.09
  • Published : 2019.02.01

Abstract

Objective: Dairy cattle nutrient requirement systems acknowledge amino acid (AAs) requirements in aggregate as metabolizable protein (MP) and assume fixed efficiencies of MP used for milk protein. Regulation of mammary protein synthesis may be associated with AA input and milk protein output. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of nanoemulsified methionine and cysteine on the in-vitro expression of milk protein (casein) in bovine mammary epithelial cells (MAC-T cells). Methods: Methionine and cysteine were nonionized using Lipoid S 75 by high-speed homogenizer. The nanoemulsified AA particle size and polydispersity index were determined by dynamic light scattering correlation spectroscopy using a high-performance particle sizer instrument. 3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay was performed to determine the cytotoxicity effect of AAs with and without nanoionization at various concentrations (100 to $500{\mu}g/mL$) in mammary epithelial cells. MAC-T cells were subjected to 100% of free AA and nanoemulsified AA concentration in Dulbecco's modified Eagle medium/nutrient mixture F-12 (DMEM/F12) for the analysis of milk protein (casein) expression by the quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction method. Results: The AA-treated cells showed that cell viability tended to decrease (80%) in proportion to the concentration before nanogenesis, but cell viability increased as much as 90% after nanogenesis. The analysis of the expression of genetic markers related to milk protein indicated that; ${\alpha}_{s2}$-casein increased 2-fold, ${\kappa}$-casein increased 5-fold, and the amount of unchanged ${\beta}$-casein expression was nearly doubled in the nanoemulsified methionine-treated group when compared with the free-nanoemulsified methionine-supplemented group. On the contrary, the non-emulsified cysteine-administered group showed higher expression of genetic markers related to milk protein ${\alpha}_{s2}$-casein, ${\kappa}$-casein, and ${\beta}$-casein, but all the genetic markers related to milk protein decreased significantly after nanoemulsification. Conclusion: Detailed knowledge of factors, such nanogenesis of methionine, associated with increasing cysteine and decreasing production of genetic markers related to milk protein (casein) will help guide future recommendations to producers for maximizing milk yield with a high level of milk protein casein.

Keywords

Acknowledgement

Grant : Biological modulation for optimal production of dairy cows during the transition period

Supported by : Rural Development Administration

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