Kimchi and Its Functionality

김치와 김치의 건강기능성

  • Park, Kun-Young (Department of Food Science and Biotechnology, Cha University) ;
  • Hong, Geun-Hye (Department of Food Science and Biotechnology, Cha University)
  • 박건영 (차의과학대학교 식품생명공학과) ;
  • 홍근혜 (차의과학대학교 식품생명공학과)
  • Received : 2019.04.02
  • Accepted : 2019.04.30
  • Published : 2019.04.30


Kimchi is a traditional Korean fermented vegetable probiotic food. The use of high quality ingredients and predominant LAB (lactic acid bacteria)-whether it be ambient bacteria or adding starters, low temperature and facultative anaerobic condition for the fermentation are important factors for preparing kimchi with better taste and functionality. The predominated LAB genera are Leuconostoc, Lactobacillus, and Weissella in kimchi fermentation. The representative species are Leu. mesenteroides, Leu. citrium, Lab. plantarum, Lab. sakei, and Wei. koreensis. Kimchi, especially the optimally fermented kimchi, has various health benefits, including control of colon health, antioxidation, antiaging effects, cancer preventive effect, antiobesity, control of dyslipidemic and metabolic syndrome, etc.; due to the presence of LAB, various nutraceuticals, and metabolites from the ingredients and LAB. The kimchi LAB are good probiotics, exhibiting antimicrobial activity, antioxidant, antimutagenic and anticancer effects, as well as immunomodualatory effect, antiobesity, and cholesterol and lipid lowering effects. Thus, kimchi ingredients, LAB, fermentation methods, and metabolites are important factors that modulate various functionalities. In this review, we introduced recent information showing kimchi and its health benefits in Korean Functional Foods (Park & Ju 2018).


SSMHB4_2019_v34n2_142_f0001.png 이미지

Fecal β-glucosidase- and β-glucuronidase activity changes of (a) normal healthy subjects and in (b) IBS patients who consumed standardized kimchi (SK) and functional kimchi (FK). Data represent mean±SD. *Means significantly different from week 0 value (p<0.05). **Means significantly different from week 0 value (p<0.01) (Kim 2016).

SSMHB4_2019_v34n2_142_f0002.png 이미지

Biological actions of standard kimchi (sKimchi) and cancer-preventive kimchi (cpKimchi); comparison in an in vitro H. pylori cell model. (a) Cell survival by MTT assay. MTT assay was done in AGS cells (left) and RGM-1 cells (right) treated with 1, 2.5, 5, and 7.5 mg/mL concentration of sKimchi and cpKimchi soluble extracts, respectively. (b) Western blot of HO-1 after each kimchi extract. (c) Western blot for Bax and cleaved caspase-3 (Jeong et al. 2015).

SSMHB4_2019_v34n2_142_f0003.png 이미지

Prevention of H. pylori–induced gastric tumorigenesis with long-term intake of cpKimchi (36 weeks after H. pylori infection). (a) Gross and pathological pictures and index according to group. On gross evaluation of resected stomach, the following findings were obtained; nodular mucosal changes, thinned gastric mucosa, adenomatous polyps, and tumorous lesion with central ulcerations. The whole gross lesion index was significantly increased in the control group, but significantly decreased in the group administered with cpKimchi (p<0.05). Severe chronic atrophic gastritis, gastric ulcer, gastritis cystica profunda, adenoma, and adenocarcinoma were shown in control group (×100). The mean pathological scores were significantly increased in control group, but significantly decreased in group administered with cpKimchi (p<0.05). (b). The gastric cancer occurrence rate, according to group gastric adenoma, and cancer occurrence were significantly increased in the control group, but significantly decreased in the group administered with cpKimchi (×100) (p<0.05) (Jeong et al. 2015).

SSMHB4_2019_v34n2_142_f0004.png 이미지

Effects of standardized kimchi (SK), functional kimchi (FK) and mixed starter-fermented functional kimchi (MSFK) on changes in body weight in HFD-induced obesity in mice. Symbols: normal=normal diet; HFD= high-fat diet; S=high-fat diet+standardized kimchi; FK= high-fat diet+functional kimchi; MSFK=high-fat diet+ mixed starter fermented functional kimchi. a-cMeans with different letters on the same day are significantly different (p<0.05) by Duncan’s multiple range test (Lee 2016).

Comparison of irritable bowel symptom scores between IBS patients who participated in clinical studies

SSMHB4_2019_v34n2_142_t0001.png 이미지

Body weights, food Intakes, food efficiency ratios, and tissue weights in DIO (Diet-Induced Obese) mice

SSMHB4_2019_v34n2_142_t0002.png 이미지

Changes in serum lipid, metabolic, and inflammatory markers in healthy subjects consuming baechu kimchi for 4 weeks

SSMHB4_2019_v34n2_142_t0003.png 이미지

Changes in metabolic parameters related to metabolic syndrome in obese subjects by kimchi intake

SSMHB4_2019_v34n2_142_t0004.png 이미지


Grant : 기능성 김치 및 태명청 음료의 건강기능식품 개발

Supported by : 경기도


  1. Ahn DK, Han TW, Shin HY et al. 2003. Diversity and antibacterial activity of lactic acid bacteria isolated from kimchi. Korean J Microbiol Biotechnol, 31:191-196
  2. Ahn SJ. 2007. The effect of kimchi powder supplement on the body weight reduction of obese adult women. Master's degree thesis, Pusan National University, Busan, Korea.
  3. Bengmark, S. 2001. Use of prebiotics, probiotics, and synbiotics in clinical immunonutrition. Proceedings of International Symposium on food nutrition and health for 21st century, 187-213
  4. Bogdanov IG, Dalev PG, Gurevich AI et al. 1975. Antitumor glycopeptides from Lactobacillus bulgaricus cell wall. FEBS Lett, 57(3):259-261
  5. Bong YJ, Jeong JK, Park KY. 2013. Fermentation properties and health functionality improvement of kimchi by kimchi lactic acid bacteria starters. J Korean Soc Food Sci Nutr, 42(11):1717-1726
  6. Chae OW, Shin KS, Chung H, Choe TB. 1998. Immunostimulation effects of mice fed with cell lysate of Lactobacillus plantarum isolated from kimchi. Korean J Biotenol Bioeng, 13(4):424-430
  7. Chang JH, Shim YY, Cha SK, Chee KM. 2010. Probiotic characteristics of lactic acid bacteria isolated from kimchi. J Appl Microbiol, 109(1):220-230
  8. Chang JY, Chang HC. 2011. Growth inhibition of foodborne pathogens by kimchi prepared with bacteriocin-producing starter culture. J Food Sci, 76(1): M72-M78
  9. Cheigh HS, Park KY. 1994. Biochemical, microbiological and nutritional aspect of kimchi (Korean fermented vegetable products). Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr, 34:175-203
  10. Cho EJ, Park KY, Rhee SH. 1997. Standardization of ingredient ratios of Chinese cabbage kimchi. Korean J Food Sci Technol, 29(6):1228-1235
  11. Cho EJ. 1999. Standardization and cancer chemopreventive activities of Chinese cabbage kimchi. Doctoral degree thesis, Pusan National University, Busan, Korea
  12. Choi SM, Jeon YS, Rhee SH, Park KY. 2002. Red pepper powder and kimchi reduce body weight and blood and tissue lipids in rats fed a high fat diet. Nutraceuticals Food, 7:162-167
  13. Choi HJ, Lee NK, Paik HD. 2015. Health benefits of lactic acid bacteria isolated from kimchi, with respect to immunomodulatory effects. Food Sci Biotechnol, 24(3):783-789
  14. Choi IH, Noh JS, Han JS et al. 2013. Kimchi, a fermented vegetable, improves serum lipid profiles in healthy young adults: Randomized clinical trial. J Med Food, 16(3):223-229
  15. Choi JM, Lee SH, Park KY et al. 2014. Protective effect of kimchi against $A{\beta}$-25-35-induced impairment of cognition and memory. J Korean Soc Food Sci Nutr, 43(3):360-365
  16. Choi SM. 2001. Antiobesity and anticancer effects of red pepper powder and kimchi. Doctoral degree thesis, Pusan National University, Busan, Korea
  17. Collins MD, Gibson GR. 1999. Probiotics, prebiotics, and synbiotics: Approaches for modulating the microbial ecology of the gut. Am J Clin Nutr, 69(5):1052s-1057s
  18. Cui M, Kim HY, Lee KH et al. 2015. Antiobesity effects of kimchi in diet-induced obese mice. J Ethnic Foods, 2(3):137-144
  19. Friend BA, Shahani K. 1984. Antitumor properties of lactobacilli and dairy products fermented by lactobacilli. J Food Prot, 47(9):717-723
  20. Goldin BR, Gorbach SL. 1976. The relationship between diet and rat fecal bacterial enzymes implicated in colon cancer. J Natl Cancer Inst, 57(2):371-375
  21. Holzapfel WH. 2006. Introduction to prebiotics and probiotics. In: Probiotics in food safety and human health. (Goktepe I, Juneja VK, Ahmedna M, eds.) CRC Taylor and Fransis, Boca Raton, FL, USA, pp 1-33
  22. Hwang JW, Song YO. 2000. The effects of solvent fractions of kimchi on plasma lipid concentration of rabbit fed high cholesterol diet. J Korean Soc Food Sci Nutr, 29:204-210
  23. Hwang SY, Hur YM, Choi YH et al. 1997. Inhibitory effect of kimchi extracts on mutagenesis of aflatoxin B1. Environ Mut Carcino, 17(2):133-137
  24. Hughes PA, Zola H, Penttila IA et al. 2013. Immune activation in irritable bowel syndrome: Can neuroimmune interactions explain symptoms? Am J Gastroenterol, 108(7):1066-1074
  25. Hur HJ, Lee KW, Lee HJ. 2004. Production of nitric oxide, tumor necrosis factor-a and interleukin-6 by RAW 264.7 macrophage cells treated with lactic acid bacteria isolated from kimchi. Biofactors, 21(1-4):123-125
  26. Iimuro M, Shibata H, Kawamori T et al. 2002. Suppressive effects of garlic extract on Helicobacter pylori-induced gastritis in Mongolian gerbils. Cancer Letters, 187(1-2):61-68
  27. Islam MS, Choi H. 2009. Antidiabetic effect of Korean traditional Baechu (Chinese cabbage) kimchi in a type 2 diabetes model of rats. J Med Food, 12(2):292-297
  28. Jang SE, Joh EH, Lee HY et al. 2013. Lactobacillus plantarum HY7712 ameliorates cyclophosphamide-induced immunosuppression in mice. J Microbiol Biotechnol, 23(3):414-421
  29. Jeong M, Park JM, Han YM et al. 2015. Dietary prevention of Helicobacter pylori-associated gastric cancer with kimchi. Oncotarget, 6(30):29513-29526
  30. Jeun J, Kim S, Cho SY et al. 2010. Hypocholesterolemic effects of Lactobacillus plantarum KCTC3928 by increased bile acid excretion in C57BL/6 mice. Nutrition, 26(3):321-330
  31. Jo JS, Nam CW. 1979. Standardization of kimchi and related products. Bull Dongduk Women's University, 9:199-212
  32. Jones NL, Shabib S, Sherman PM. 1997. Capsacin as an inhibitor of the growth gastric pathogen Helicobacter pylori. FEMS Microbiol Lett, 146(2):223-227
  33. Jung JY, Lee SH, Kim JM et al. 2011. Metagenomic analysis of kimchi, a traditional Korean fermented food. Appl Environ Microbiol, 77(7):2264-2274
  34. Jung JY, Lee SH, Lee HJ et al. 2012. Effects of Leuconostoc mesenteroides starter cultures on microbial communities and metabolites during kimchi fermentation. Int J Food Microbiol, 153(3):378-387
  35. Kajander K, Hatakka K, Poussa T et al. 2005. A probiotic mixture alleviates symptoms in irritable bowel syndrome patients: A controlled 6-month intervention. Aliment Pharmacol Ther, 22(5):387-394
  36. Kang BK, Cho MS, Ahn TY et al. 2015. The influence of red pepper powder on the density of Weissella koreensis during kimchi fermentation. Scietific Reports, 5:15445. doi: 10.1038/srep15445
  37. Kaur J. 2014. A comprehensive review on metabolic syndrome. Cardiol Res Pract, 2014:943162. doi: 10.1155/2014/943162.
  38. Ki MR, Ghim SY, Hong IH et al. 2010. In vitro inhibition of Helicobacter pylori growth and of adherence of cagA-positive strains to gastric epithelial cells by Lactobacillus paraplantarum KNUC25 isolated from kimchi. J Med Food, 13(3):629-634
  39. Kil JH. 2004. Studies on development of cancer preventive and anticancer kimchi and its anticancer mechanism. Doctoral degree thesis, Pusan National University, Busan, Korea.
  40. Kim JD. 2005. Antifungal activity of lactic acid bacteria isolated from kimchi against Aspergillus fumigates. Mycobiology, 33:210-214.
  41. Kim BK, Park KY, Kim HY et al. 2011a. Anti-aging effects and mechanisms of kimchi during fermentation under stress-induced premature senescence cellular system. Food Sci Biotechnol, 20(3):643-649
  42. Kim BK, Choi JM, Kang SA et al. 2014a. Antioxidative effects of kimchi under different fermentation stage on radical-induced oxidative stress. Nutr Res Pract, 8(6):638-643
  43. Kim EK, An SY, Lee MS et al. 2011b. Fermented kimchi reduces body weight and improves metabolic parameters in overweight and obese patients. Nutr Res, 31(6):436-443
  44. Kim HY. 2016. Effects of kimchi intake on colon health of Korean young adults and irritable bowel syndrome patients. Doctoral degree thesis, Pusan National University, Busan, Korea
  45. Kim HY, Bong YJ, Jeong JK et al. 2016. Heterofermentative lactic acid bacteria dominate in Korean commercial kimchi. Food Sci Biotechnol, 25(2):541-545
  46. Kim HY, Park KY. 2018. Clinical trials of kimchi intakes on the regulation of metabolic parameters and colon health in healthy Korean young adults. J Functional Foods, 47:325-333
  47. Kim HY, Song JL, Chang HK et al. 2014b. Kimchi protects against azoxymethane/dextran sulfate sodium-induced colorectal carcinogenesis in mice. J Med Food, 17(8):833-841
  48. Kim HY, Bae HS, Baek YJ. 1991. In vivo antitumor effects of lactic acid bacteria on sarcoma 180 and mouse Lewis lung carcinoma. J Korean Cancer Association, 23(2):188-196
  49. Kim JH, Ryu JD, Lee HG et al. 2002. The effect of kimchi on production of free radicals and anti-oxidative enzyme activities in the brain of SAM. J Korean Soc Food Sci Nutr, 31(1):117-123
  50. Kim KM. 1998. Increase in swimming endurance capacity of mice by capsaicin. Doctoral degree thesis, Kyoto Univerisity, Japan.
  51. Kim MJ, Chun JS. 2005. Bacterial community structure in kimchi, a Korean fermented vegetable food, as revealed by 16S rRNA gene analysis. International J Food Microbiol, 103:91-96
  52. Kwon JY, Cheigh HS, Song YO. 2004. Weight reduction and lipid lowering effects of kimchi lactic acid powder in rats fed high fat diets. Korean J Food Sci Technol, 36(6):1014-1019
  53. Kwon MJ, Song YO, Song YS. 1997. Effect of kimchi on tissue and fecal lipid composition and apolipoprotein and thyroxine levels in rats. J Korean Soc Food Sci Nutr, 26:507-513
  54. Kwon MJ, Chun JY, Song YS, Song YO. 1999. Daily kimchi consumption and its hypolipidemic effect in middle-aged men. J Korean Soc Food Sci Nutr, 28(5):1144-1150
  55. Lee H, Ahn YT, Park SH et al. 2014. Lactobacillus plantarum HY7712 protects against the impairment of NK-cell activity caused by whole-body gamma-irradiation in mice. J Microbiol Biotechnol, 24(1):127-131
  56. Lee HA, Bong YJ, Kim H et al. 2015a. Effect of nanometric Lactobacillus plantarum in kimchi on dextran sulfate sodium-induced colitis in mice. J Med Food, 18:1073-1080.
  57. Lee HA, Kim H, Lee KW et al. 2015b. Dead nano-sized Lactobacillus plantarum inhibits azoxymethane/dextran sulfate sodium-induced colon cancer in BALB/c mice. J Med Food, 18:1400-1405
  58. Lee J. 2005a. Adhesion of kimchi Lactobacillus strains to Caco-2 cell membrane and sequestration of aflatoxin B1. J Korean Soc Food Sci Nutr, 34:581-585
  59. Lee J, Hwang KT, Heo MS, Lee JH, Park KY. 2005b. Resistance of Lactobacillus plantarum KCTC 3099 from kimchi to oxidative stress. J Med Food, 8(3):299-304
  60. Lee KH. 2016. Lactic acid bacteria starter fermented kimchi inhibits obesity and colitis-associated colon cancer in C57BL/6J mice. Doctoral degree thesis, Pusan National University, Busan, Korea.
  61. Lee KH, Song JL, Park ES et al. 2015d. Antiobesity effects of starter fermented kimchi on 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Prev Nutr Food Sci, 20:298-302
  62. Lee YD, Yoo HL, Hwang JY et al. 2010. Antimicrobial effect of lactic acid bacteria isolated from kimchi and tarak on Helicobacter pylori. Korean J Food Nutr, 23: 664-669
  63. Lee Y, Chang HC. 2008. Isolation and characterization of kimchi lactic acid bacteria showing anti-Helicobacter pylori activity. Korean J Microbiol Biotechnol, 36(2):106-114
  64. Lim SM, Im DS. 2009. Screening and characterization of probiotic lactic acid bacteria isolated from Korean fermented foods. J Microbiol Biotechnol, 19(2):178-186
  65. Lim SK, Kwon MS, Lee J et al. 2017. Weissella cibaria WIKIM28 ameliorates atopic dermatitis-like skin lesions by inducing tolerogenic dendritic cells and regulatory T cells in BALB/c mice. Scientific Reports, 7:40040
  66. Martineau B, Laflamme DP. 2002. Effect of diet on markers of intestinal health in dogs. Res Vet Sci, 72(3):223-227.
  67. Moon YJ, Soh JR, Yu JJ et al. 2012. Intracellular lipid accumulation inhibitory effect of Weissella koreensis OK1-6 isolated from kimchi on differentiating adipocyte. J Appl Microbiol, 113(3):652-658
  68. Oh YJ, Hwang IJ, Leitzmann C. 1993. Regular intake of kimchi prevents colon cancer. Kimchi Sci Ind , 2(9):9-22
  69. Park JA, Pichiah PBT, Yu JJ et al. 2012. Anti-obesity effect of kimchi fermented with Weissella koreensis OK1-6 as starter in high-fat diet-induced obese C57BL/6J mice. J Appl Microbiol, 113(6):1507-1516
  70. Park KY, Baek KA, Rhee SH et al. 1995. Antimutagenic effect of kimchi. Foods Biotechnol 4(3):141-145
  71. Park KY, Cho EJ, Rhee SH et al. 2003. Kimchi and an active component, beta-sitosterol, reduce oncogenic $H-Ras^{v12}$-induced DNA synthesis. J Med Food 6(3):151-156.
  72. Park KY, Kim HY, Jeong JK. 2017. Kimchi and its health benefits, In: Fermented foods in health and disease prevention. (Frias J, Martinez-Villaluenga C, Penas E eds.) London, United Kingdom: Elsevier. pp 477-502
  73. Park KY, Jeong JK. 2016. Kimchi (Korean fermented vegetable) as a probiotic food. In: Probiotics, prebiotics, and synbiotics. (Wastos RR, Preedy VR eds.) London, United Kingdom: Elsevier. pp 391-408
  74. Park KY, Jeong JK, Lee YE et al. 2014. Health benefits of kimchi (Korean fermented vegetables) as a probiotic food. J Med Food, 17(1):6-20
  75. Park KY, Ju J. 2018. Kimchi and its health Benefits, In : Korean functional foods. (Park KY, Kwon DY, Lee KW, Park S eds.) CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL, USA, pp 63-98
  76. Park KY, Kim BK. 2012. Lactic acid bacteria in vegetable fermentations. In: Lactic acid bacteria-microbiological and functional aspects. (Lahtinen S, Salmien S, Ouwehand A, von Wright A eds.) CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL, USA, pp 187-211
  77. Park KY, Kim SH, Son TJ. 1998. Antimutgenic activities of cell wall and cytosol fractions of lactic acid bacteria isolated from kimchi. J Food Sci Nutr, 3(4):329-333.
  78. Park KY, Rhee SH. 2005. Functional foods from fermented vegetable products: kimchi (Korean fermented vegetables) and functionality. In: Asian functional foods. (Shi J, Ho CT, Shahidi F eds.) CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL, USA, pp 341-380
  79. Park KY. 1995. The nutritional evaluation, and antimutagenic and anticancer effects of kimchi. J Korean Food Sci Nutr, 24:169-182
  80. Park KY, Ha JO, Rhee SH. 1996. A study on the contents of dietary fibers and crude fiber in kimchi ingredients and kimchi. J Korean Food Sci Nutr, 25:69-75
  81. Park KY, Cheigh HS. 2004. Kimchi. In: Handbook of food and beverage fermentation technology, (Hui YH, Goddik IM, Hansen AS, Josephsen J, Nip WK, Stanfield PS, Toldra F eds.) Marcel Dekker Inc, New York, pp 621-655
  82. Park SY, Jin HM, Lim HJ et al. 2013. Immunomodulatory effects of lactic acid bacteria isolated from kimchi on the function of mouse T cells. Curr Top LAB Probiotics, 1:133-137
  83. Park WS, Koo MJ, Ahn BH et al. 1994a. Standardization of kimchi-manufacturing process. Report of Korean Food Research Institute, Seoul, Korea, 0449
  84. Park WS, Lee IS, Han YS et al. 1994b. Kimchi preparation with brined Chinese cabbage and seasoning mixture stored separately. Korean J Food Sci Technol, 26(3):231-238
  85. Ray B. Bhunia A. 2008. Fundamental food microbiology, 4th edition. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL, USA, pp 165-168
  86. Ruige JB, Dekker JM, Blum WF et al. 1999. Leptin and variables of body adiposity, energy balance, and insulin resistance in a population-based study. The Hoorn study. Diabetes Care 22(7):1097-1104
  87. Ryu BM. 2000. Effect of kimchi on inhibition of skin aging of hairless mouse. Doctoral degree thesis, Pusan National University, Busan, Korea.
  88. Ryu BM, Ryu SH, Lee YS et al. 2004. Effect of different kimchi diets on oxidation and photooxidation in liver and skin of hairless mice. J Korean Soc Food Sci Nutr, 33:291-298
  89. Ryu JC, Park KY. 2001. Anticlastogenic effect of baechu (Chinese cabbage) kimchi and Buchu (leek) kimchi in mitomycin C-induced micronucleus formations by supravital staining of mouse peripheral reticulocytes. Environ Mut Carcino, 21(1):51-56
  90. Seo BJ, Rather IA, Kumar VJR et al. 2012. Evaluation of Leuconostoc mesenteroides YML003 as a probiotic against low-pathogenic avian influenza (H9N2) virus in chickens. J Appl Microbiol, 113(1):163-171
  91. Shin KS, Chae OW, Park IC et al. 1998. Antitumor effects of mice fed with cell lysate of Lactobacillus plantarum isolated from kimchi. Korean J Biotechnol Bioeng, 13:357-363
  92. Sohn CI. 2002. Selected summary: the treatment of functional dyspepsia with red pepper. J Neurogasteroenterol Motil 8(2):208-209
  93. Son K. 1991. Variety and use of kimchi. Korean J Diet Cult, 6:503-520
  94. Son TJ, Kim SH, Park KY. 1998. Antimutagenic activities of lactic acid bacteria isolated from kimchi. J Korean Assoc Cancer Prev, 3(3):65-74
  95. Wissellink HW, Weusthuis RA, Eggink G et al. 2002. Mannitol production by lactic acid bacteria: A review. Int Dairy J 12(2-3):151-161
  96. Wolf AJ, Underhill DM. 2018. Peptidoglycan recognition by the innate immune system. Nature Rev./Immunology, 18(4):243. doi: 10.1038/nri.2017.136
  97. Won TJ, Kim B, Lim YT et al. 2011. Oral administration of Lactobacillus strains from kimchi inhibits atopic dermatitis in NC/Nga mice. J Applied Microbiology, 110:1195-1202
  98. Yang EJ, Chang HC. 2008. Antifungal activity of Lactobacillus plantarum isolated from kimchi. Korean J Microbiol Biotechnol, 36(4):276-284
  99. Yoon JY, Jung KO, Kil JH, Park KY. 2005. Antiobesity effect of major Korean spices (red pepper powder, garlic, and ginger) in rats fed high fat diet. J Food Sci Nutr 10(1):58-63
  100. Yun JY, Jeong JK, Moon SH, Park KY. 2014. Effects of brined cabbage and seasoning on fermentation of kimchi. J Korean Soc Food Sci Nutr 43(7):1081-1087
  101. Yoon JY, Jung KO, Kim SH, Park KY. 2004. Antiobesity effect of baek-kimchi (whitish baechu kimchi) in rats fed high fat diet. J Food Sci Nutr, 9:259-264