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Kimchi and Its Functionality

김치와 김치의 건강기능성

  • Park, Kun-Young (Department of Food Science and Biotechnology, Cha University) ;
  • Hong, Geun-Hye (Department of Food Science and Biotechnology, Cha University)
  • 박건영 (차의과학대학교 식품생명공학과) ;
  • 홍근혜 (차의과학대학교 식품생명공학과)
  • Received : 2019.04.02
  • Accepted : 2019.04.30
  • Published : 2019.04.30

Abstract

Kimchi is a traditional Korean fermented vegetable probiotic food. The use of high quality ingredients and predominant LAB (lactic acid bacteria)-whether it be ambient bacteria or adding starters, low temperature and facultative anaerobic condition for the fermentation are important factors for preparing kimchi with better taste and functionality. The predominated LAB genera are Leuconostoc, Lactobacillus, and Weissella in kimchi fermentation. The representative species are Leu. mesenteroides, Leu. citrium, Lab. plantarum, Lab. sakei, and Wei. koreensis. Kimchi, especially the optimally fermented kimchi, has various health benefits, including control of colon health, antioxidation, antiaging effects, cancer preventive effect, antiobesity, control of dyslipidemic and metabolic syndrome, etc.; due to the presence of LAB, various nutraceuticals, and metabolites from the ingredients and LAB. The kimchi LAB are good probiotics, exhibiting antimicrobial activity, antioxidant, antimutagenic and anticancer effects, as well as immunomodualatory effect, antiobesity, and cholesterol and lipid lowering effects. Thus, kimchi ingredients, LAB, fermentation methods, and metabolites are important factors that modulate various functionalities. In this review, we introduced recent information showing kimchi and its health benefits in Korean Functional Foods (Park & Ju 2018).

Keywords

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Fecal β-glucosidase- and β-glucuronidase activity changes of (a) normal healthy subjects and in (b) IBS patients who consumed standardized kimchi (SK) and functional kimchi (FK). Data represent mean±SD. *Means significantly different from week 0 value (p<0.05). **Means significantly different from week 0 value (p<0.01) (Kim 2016).

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Biological actions of standard kimchi (sKimchi) and cancer-preventive kimchi (cpKimchi); comparison in an in vitro H. pylori cell model. (a) Cell survival by MTT assay. MTT assay was done in AGS cells (left) and RGM-1 cells (right) treated with 1, 2.5, 5, and 7.5 mg/mL concentration of sKimchi and cpKimchi soluble extracts, respectively. (b) Western blot of HO-1 after each kimchi extract. (c) Western blot for Bax and cleaved caspase-3 (Jeong et al. 2015).

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Prevention of H. pylori–induced gastric tumorigenesis with long-term intake of cpKimchi (36 weeks after H. pylori infection). (a) Gross and pathological pictures and index according to group. On gross evaluation of resected stomach, the following findings were obtained; nodular mucosal changes, thinned gastric mucosa, adenomatous polyps, and tumorous lesion with central ulcerations. The whole gross lesion index was significantly increased in the control group, but significantly decreased in the group administered with cpKimchi (p<0.05). Severe chronic atrophic gastritis, gastric ulcer, gastritis cystica profunda, adenoma, and adenocarcinoma were shown in control group (×100). The mean pathological scores were significantly increased in control group, but significantly decreased in group administered with cpKimchi (p<0.05). (b). The gastric cancer occurrence rate, according to group gastric adenoma, and cancer occurrence were significantly increased in the control group, but significantly decreased in the group administered with cpKimchi (×100) (p<0.05) (Jeong et al. 2015).

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Effects of standardized kimchi (SK), functional kimchi (FK) and mixed starter-fermented functional kimchi (MSFK) on changes in body weight in HFD-induced obesity in mice. Symbols: normal=normal diet; HFD= high-fat diet; S=high-fat diet+standardized kimchi; FK= high-fat diet+functional kimchi; MSFK=high-fat diet+ mixed starter fermented functional kimchi. a-cMeans with different letters on the same day are significantly different (p<0.05) by Duncan’s multiple range test (Lee 2016).

Comparison of irritable bowel symptom scores between IBS patients who participated in clinical studies

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Body weights, food Intakes, food efficiency ratios, and tissue weights in DIO (Diet-Induced Obese) mice

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Changes in serum lipid, metabolic, and inflammatory markers in healthy subjects consuming baechu kimchi for 4 weeks

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Changes in metabolic parameters related to metabolic syndrome in obese subjects by kimchi intake

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Acknowledgement

Grant : 기능성 김치 및 태명청 음료의 건강기능식품 개발

Supported by : 경기도

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