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Antimicrobial Effects of Tea Tree (Melaleuca alternifolia) Extracts

티트리 (Melaleuca alternifolia) 추출물의 항균 활성

  • Ji, Keunho (Basic Science Research Institute, Pukyong National University)
  • 지근호 (부경대학교 기초과학연구소)
  • Received : 2019.02.25
  • Accepted : 2019.05.03
  • Published : 2019.05.31

Abstract

Melaleuca alternifolia contains terpineol-4, cineol, sesquiterpenes etc., and has a germicidal effect and skin moisturizing effect. It also has the characteristics of relieving acne inflammation, treating dandruff, relieving pain, and relieving depression. In this study, an antimicrobial substance extracted from tea tree using an organic solvent (methanol, dichloromethane, ethyl acetate) and hydrothermal extraction method. And confirmed the antimicrobial activity of each extract. In order to verify the antimicrobial activity, nine pathogenic bacteria (Bacillus cereus, Bacillus subtilis, Listeria monocytogenes, Enterococcus faecalis, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhimurium, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Vibrio parahaemolyticus) were used. The antimicrobial activity of each extracts were confirmed by the commonly used disc diffusion method. The results showed that the fraction extracts of ethyl acetate and methanol had antimicrobial effects against V. parahaemolyticus and S. aureus. Using these results, we confirmed the antimicrobial activity of each fraction extracts and hot water extracts against V. parahaemolyticus. After the treat of samples, we confirmed at over 99.9 % of antimicrobial activity. In case of antifungal activities, we confirmed of preservation effect during over 45 hours. Based on the results of this research, further studies will be conducted to confirm the possibility of development as a new antimicrobial agent.

티트리 (Melaleuca alternifolia, Tea tree)는 terpineol-4, cineol, cymene, sesquiterpenes 등을 함유하여 살균 효과와 피부 보습효과를 지니고 있으며 또한, 여드름 염증 완화, 비듬 치료, 통증 완화, 우울증 해소 등의 특성을 가지고 있다. 본 연구에서는 티트리를 유기용매 (Methanol, Dichloromethane, Ethyl acetate) 및 열수추출법을 이용하여 물질을 추출하였으며, 각 추출액에서 나타나는 항균 및 항진균 활성을 확인하였다. 항균 활성 검증은 9종의 병원성 미생물 (Bacillus cereus, Bacillus subtilis, Listeria monocytogenes, Enterococcus faecalis, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhimurium, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Vibrio parahaemolyticus)을 대상으로 실시하였으며, 항균 활성 검증에 일반적으로 사용되는 disc diffusion법을 이용하여 추출물의 항균 활성을 확인하였다. 항균활성 검증을 통하여 ethyl acetate 분획추출물과 methanol 분획추출물에서 V. parahemolyticus와, S. aureus에 대한 항균활성을 확인하였다. 또한, 최대 활성을 나타내었던 V. parahaemolyticus를 대상으로 각 분획추출물 및 열수추출물의 항균활성을 확인하였으며, 10 mg/mL 농도로 처리하였을 때 99.9 % 이상의 항균활성을 확인하였다. 항진균활성의 경우, 균종에 따른 차이는 있으나 진균류에 대한 약 45시간 이상의 보존력을 확인하였다. 본 연구를 통해서 티트리 열수추출물과 메탄올 추출물의 V. parahaemolyticus에 대한 항균 활성을 확인하였으며, 추가적인 연구를 통해 항균제 및 항진균제로써의 개발 가능성을 확인하고자 한다.

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Fig. 1. The procedure for each extraction from Melaleuca alternifolia.

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Fig. 2. The antimicrobial activities of M. alternifolia extracts. C; DMSO control, D; dichloromethane extract, E; ethyl acetate extract, H; water layer

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Fig. 3. The antimicrobial activities of M. alternifolia extracts. B; MeOH control, 1; 99 % MeOH extract, 2; 70 % MeOH extract

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Fig. 4. The antimicrobial activities of M. alternifolia extracts. B; DMSO control, 1; MeOHext- DMSOdis, 2; MeOHext-H2Odis, 3; Hot water extract

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Fig. 5. The antifungal activities of M. alternifolia extracts against A. niger . A; 24hr, B; 45hr, C; 70hr, D; 95hr, E; 145hr, (1); Control, (2); 70 % MeOH extract, (3); 99 % MeOH extract, (4); MeOHext-DMSOdis, (5); Hot water extract

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Fig. 6. The antifungal activities of M. alternifolia extracts against C . globosum . A; 24hr, B; 45hr, C; 70hr, D; 95hr, E; 145hr, (1); Control, (2); 70 % MeOH extract, (3); 99 % MeOH extract, (4); MeOHext-DMSOdis, (5); Hot water extract

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Fig. 7. The antifungal activities of M. alternifolia extracts against P. pinophilum . A; 24hr, B; 45hr, C; 70hr, D; 95hr, E; 145hr, (1); Control, (2); 70 % MeOH extract, (3); 99 % MeOH extract, (4); MeOHext-DMSOdis, (5); Hot water extract

Table 1. Growth conditions of pathogenic bacteria

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Table 2. Antimicrobial effects of M. alternifolia various extracts against V. parahaemolyticus.

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Acknowledgement

Supported by : 한국연구재단

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