Seoul PACT : Principles of Artificial Intelligence Ethics and its Application Example to Intelligent E-Government Service

인공지능 윤리 원칙 Seoul PACT를 적용한 지능형 전자정부 서비스 윤리 가이드라인

  • 김명주 (서울여자대학교 미래산업융합대학 정보보호학과)
  • Received : 2019.07.02
  • Accepted : 2019.08.29
  • Published : 2019.08.31


The remarkable achievements of the artificial intelligence in recent years are also raising awareness about its potential risks. Several governments and public organizations have been proposing the artificial intelligence ethics for sustainable development of artificial intelligence by minimizing potential risks. However, most existing proposals are focused on the developer-centered ethics, which is not sufficient for the comprehensive ethics required for ongoing intelligent information society. In addition, they have chosen a number of principles as the starting point of artificial intelligence ethics, so it is not easy to derive the guideline flexibly for a specific member reflecting its own situation. In this paper, we classify primitive members who need artificial intelligence ethics in intelligent information society into three : Developer, Supplier and User. We suggest a new artificial intelligence ethics, Seoul PACT, with minimal principles through publicness (P), accountability (A), controllability (C), and transparency (T). In addition, we provide 38 canonical guidelines based on these four principles, which are applicable to each primitive members. It is possible for a specific member to duplicate the roles of primitive members, so that the flexible derivation of the artificial intelligence ethics guidelines can be made according to the characteristics of the member reflecting its own situation. As an application example, in preparation for applying artificial intelligence to e-government service, we derive a full set of artificial intelligence ethics guideline from Seoul PACT, which can be adopted by the special member named Korean Government.


Supported by : 서울여자대학교


  1. 김명주, "인공지능 윤리의 필요성과 국내외 동향", 정보와 통신, 제34권, 제11호(2017), pp.45-54.
  2. 행정안전부, "지능형 정부 기본계획", 행정안전부홈페이지 정책정보, 2017, pp.1-15.
  3. Asimov, I., Runaround, I, Robot(The Isaac Asimov Collection ed.), New York City : Doubleday, 1950, p.40.
  4. BBC News, "Google apologises for Photos app's racist blunde", 2015.
  5. BBC News, "Stephen Hawking-will AI kill or save humankind?", 2016.
  6. Bostrom, N. and E. Yudkowsky, "The Ethics of Artificial Intelligence", Cambridge Handbook of Artificial Intelligence, Cambridge University Press, 2011.
  7. Byford, S., "AlphaGo retires from competitive Go after defeating world number one 3-0", The Verge, 2017.
  8. Christensen, C.M., The Innovator's Dilemma : When New Technologies Cause Great Firms to Fail, Harvard Business School Press, 1997.
  9. Egger, W.D., D. Schatsky, and P. Viechnicki, AI-augmented Government using cognitive technologies to redesign public sector work, Deloitte University Press, 2017, pp.7-14.
  29. IEEE Standards Association, "IEEE Ethical Aligned Design", 2016.
  30. Markoff, J., "Computer Wins on 'Jeopardy!' : Trivial, It's Not", The New York Times, 2011.
  31. National Science & Technology Council, "The national AI R&D Strategic Plan", Oct. 2016.
  32. Pandya, M., "IBM's Watson : The AI System Which Detected Rare Leukemia in a Woman", The Technology Org, 2016.
  33. Price, R., "Microsoft is deleting its AI chatbot's incredibly racist tweets", Business Insider, 2016.
  34. Schwab, K., The Fourth Industrial Revolution : what it means, how to respond, World Economic Forum, 2016.
  35. Torresen, J,. "A review of future and ethical perspectives of robotics and AI", Frontiers in Robotics and AI, 2018.
  36. Yadron, D. and D. Tynan, "Tesla driver dies in first fatal crash while using autopilot mode", The Guardian, 2016.