DOI QR코드

DOI QR Code

Effects of Hermetia Illucens Supplementation on Fecal Score, Blood Profiles, Immune Response and Small Intestinal Morphology in Weaned Pigs

이유자돈 사료 내 동애등에(Hermetia illucens)의 첨가가 분변지수, 혈액성상, 면역반응 및 소장형태에 미치는 영향

  • Choi, Yo-Han (Swine Science Division, National Institute of Animal Science, Rural Development Administration) ;
  • Kim, Jo-Eun (Swine Science Division, National Institute of Animal Science, Rural Development Administration) ;
  • Jung, Hyun-Jung (Swine Science Division, National Institute of Animal Science, Rural Development Administration) ;
  • Cho, Eun Seok (Swine Science Division, National Institute of Animal Science, Rural Development Administration) ;
  • Kim, Dong-Woo (Department of Animal Industry Convergence, College of Animal Life Sciences, Kangwon National University) ;
  • Kim, Jin-Soo (Department of Animal Industry Convergence, College of Animal Life Sciences, Kangwon National University)
  • 최요한 (농진청 국립축산과학원 양돈과) ;
  • 김조은 (농진청 국립축산과학원 양돈과) ;
  • 정현정 (농진청 국립축산과학원 양돈과) ;
  • 조은석 (농진청 국립축산과학원 양돈과) ;
  • 김동우 (강원대학교 동물생명과학대학 동물산업융합학과) ;
  • 김진수 (강원대학교 동물생명과학대학 동물산업융합학과)
  • Received : 2020.01.15
  • Accepted : 2020.04.03
  • Published : 2020.04.29

Abstract

This study was undertaken to determine the effects of feed supplementation with Hermetia illucens (HI) on the fecal score, blood profiles, immune response, and small intestinal morphology in weaned pigs. A total of 24 weaned pigs (Landrace×Yorkshire×Duroc; 5.86±0.13 kg) were randomly allotted to 4 treatments and 6 replicates on the basis of initial body weight. The experiment was accomplished over 0-14 days. The dietary treatments included a corn-soybean meal diet supplemented with 0, 1, 2, and 3% HI. A linear response to increasing dietary HI was observed for the number of monocytes (p<0.01) and eosinophils (p<0.05), whereas red blood cells tended to decrease with increasing HI levels. Plasma TNF-α levels were also determined to linearly decrease with HI supplementation (p=0.07). Moreover, a linearly decreasing tendency (p=0.06) was observed in the fecal score with increasing dietary levels of HI. Weaned pigs fed diets supplemented with increasing dietary concentrations of HI showed linearly improved (p<0.05) duodenal villus height during the study period. Taken together, these results indicate the beneficial effects of HI on diarrhea reduction, immune response, and small intestinal morphology in weaned pigs.

본 실험은 사료 내 동애등에(HI, Hermetia illucens)의 첨가가 이유자돈의 분변지수, 혈액성상, 면역반응 및 소장형태에 미치는 영향을 구명하기 위해 수행하였다. 본 실험을 위해 총 24두의 이유자돈(Landrace×Yorkshire×Duroc; 5.86±0.13 kg)을 공시하였으며, 개시체중에 기반하여, 4처리 6반복, 반복당 1두씩 완전임의 배치하였다. 실험기간은 0~14일간 진행하였다. 실험 처리구는 옥수수-대두박 기초사료를 대조구로 하여 기초사료 내 HI를 1, 2 및 3% 첨가한 처리구가 포함되었다. 혈액성상에서 사료 내 HI의 첨가수준이 증가함에 따라 혈중 단핵구(p<0.01)와 호산구(p<0.05)가 유의적으로 증가하는 것으로 나타났으며, 적혈구는 선형적으로 감소하는 경향이 관찰되었다(p=0.08). 한편, 면역반응에서 혈 중 TNF-α의 수치는 사료 내 HI의 첨가수준이 증가함에 따라 선형적으로 감소하는 경향이 관찰되었으며(p=0.067), 분변지수 또한 HI의 첨가수준이 증가함에 따라 선형적으로 감소하는 경향이 관찰되었다(p=0.058). 소장형태에서 십이지장의 융모 높이는 HI의 첨가수준이 증가할수록 개선되는 유의적인 효과가 나타났다(p<0.05). 본 실험의 결과들을 종합해 보면, 사료 내 HI 첨가는 이유자돈의 설사저감, 면역반응 및 소장형태에 긍정적인 효과를 미치는 것을 시사한다.

Keywords

Acknowledgement

Supported by : 농촌진흥청

References

  1. H. Vondruskova, R. Slamova, M. Trckova, Z. Zraly, I. Pavlik, "Alternatives to antibiotic growth promoters in prevention of diarrhoea in weaned piglets: a review", Veterinarni Medicina, Vol.55, pp.199-224, 2010. DOI: https://doi.org/10.17221/2998-VETMED
  2. M. Bailey, C. J. Clarke, A. D. Wilson, N. A. Williams, C. R. Stokes, "Depressed potential for interleukin-2-production following early weaning of piglets", Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology, Vol.34, pp.197-207, 1992. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/0165-2427(92)90164-L
  3. T. M. Laine, T. Lyytikainen, M. Yliaho, M. Anttila, "Risk factors for post-weaning diarrhoea on piglet producing farms in Finland", Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica, Vol.50, No.1, Article No.21, 2008. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1186/1751-0147-50-21
  4. S. Z. Skirrow, J. R. Buddle, A. R. Mercy, F. Madec, R. R. Nicholls, "Epidemiological studies of pig diseases: 2. Post-weaning diarrhoea and performance in Western Australian pigs", Australian Veterinary Journal, Vol.75, pp.282-288, 1997. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1751-0813.1997.tb10098.x
  5. J. S. Teotia, B. F. Miller, "Nutritive content of house fly pupae and manure residue", British Poultry Science, Vol.15, No.2, pp.177-182, 1974. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/00071667408416093
  6. J. S. Teotia, B. F. Miller, "Fly pupae as a dietary ingredient for starting chicks", Poultry Science, Vol.52, No.5, pp.1830-1835, 1973. DOI: https://doi.org/10.3382/ps.0521830
  7. B. S. Park, G. H. Kim, "Effects of dietary dried house fly larvae on carcass characteristics and growth performance in broiler chickens", Annals of Animal Resource Science, Vol.17, No.2, pp.10-20, 2006.
  8. Y. H. Choi, S. Y. Yoon, S. M. Jeon, J. Y. Lee, S. M. Oh, S. H. Lee, J. S. Kim "Effects of different levels of Hermetia Illucens on growth performance and nutrient digestibility in weaning pigs", Journal of the Korea Academia-Industrial cooperation Society, Vol.20, No.9, pp.255-261, 2019. DOI: https://doi.org/10.5762/KAIS.2019.20.9.255
  9. G. S. Ojewola, A. S. Eburuaja, F. C. Okoye, A. S. Lawal, A. H. Akinmutimi, "Effect of inclusion of grasshopper meal on performance, nutrient utilization and organ of broiler chicken", Journal of Sustainable Agriculture and the Environment, Vol.5, No.1, pp.19-25, 2003.
  10. T. Spranghers, J. Michiels, J. Vrancx, A. Ovyn, M. Eeckhout, P. D. Clercq, S. D. Smet, "Gut antimicrobial effects and nutritional value of black soldier fly (Hermetia illucens L. ) prepupae for weaned piglets", Animal Feed Science and Technology, Vol.235, pp.33-42, 2018. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.anifeedsci.2017.08.012
  11. H. Driemeyer, "Evaluation of black soldier fly (Hermetia illucens ) larvae as an alternative protein source in pig creep diets in relation to production, blood and manure microbiology parameters", Thesis for the degree of master of science, University of Stellenbosch, South Africa, 2016.
  12. S. Velten, C. Neumann, M. Bleyer, E. Gruber-Dujardin, M. Hanuszewska, B. Przybylska-Gornowicz, F. Liebert, "Effects of 50 percent substitution of soybean meal by alternative proteins from Hermetia illucens or Spirulina platensis in meat-type chicken diets with graded amino acid supply", Open Journal of Animal Sciences, Vol.8, No.2, pp.119-136, 2018. DOI: https://doi.org/10.4236/ojas.2018.82009
  13. G. L. Newton, C. V. Booram, R. W. Barker, O. M. Hale, "Dried Hermetia Illucens larvae meal as a supplement for swine", Journal of Animal Science, Vol.44, pp.395-400, 1977. DOI: https://doi.org/10.2527/jas1977.443395x
  14. I. Biasato, M. Renna, F. Gai, S. Dabbou, M. Meneguz, G. Perona, S. Martinez, A. C. B. Lajusticia, S. Bergagna, L. Sardi, M. T. Capucchio, E. Bressan, A. Dama, A. Schiavone, L. Gasco, "Partially defatted black soldier fly larva meal inclusion in piglet diets: effects on the growth performance, nutrient digestibility, blood profile, gut morphology and histological features", Journal of animal science and biotechnology, Vol.10, Article No.12, 2018. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1186/s40104-019-0325-x
  15. A. Van-Huis, "Potential of insects as food and feed in assuring food security", Annual Review of Entomology, Vol.58, pp.563-583, 2013. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev-ento-120811-153704
  16. H. Driemeyer, "Insect antimicrobial peptides, a mini review", Toxins, Vol.10, No.11, Article No. 461, 2018. DOI: https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins10110461
  17. M. C. Erickson, M. Islam, C. Sheppard, J. Liao, M. P. Doyle, "Reduction of Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis in chicken manure by larvae of the black soldier fly", Journal of Food Protection. Vol.67, pp.685-690, 2004. DOI: https://doi.org/10.4315/0362-028X-67.4.685
  18. W. H. Choi, J. H. Yun, J. P. Chu, K. B. Chu, "Antibacterial effect of extracts of Hermetia illucens (Diptera: Stratiomyidae) larvae against Gram-negative bacteria", Entomological Research, Vol.42, pp.219-226, 2012. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1748-5967.2012.00465.x
  19. National Research Council(NRC), "Nutrient requirements of swine", Livestock Production Science, pp. 208-238, The national academies press, 2012.
  20. K. R. Cera, D. C. Mahan, R. F. Cross, G. A. Reinhart, R. E. Whitmoyer, "Effect of age, weaning and postweaning diet on small intestinal growth and jejunal morphology in young swine", Proceedings of the Journal of Animal Science, Vol.66, No.2, pp.574-584, 1988. DOI: https://doi.org/10.2527/jas1988.662574x
  21. SAS. 2012, SAS Software for PC. Release 9.3, SAS Institute. Ins, Cart, NC, USA.
  22. J. B. Kim, K. M. Kim, K. S. Kim, S. Y. Pi, Y. S. Park, "Clinical and histological study of allergic colitis in infant", Korean Journal of Pediatrics, Vol.41, No.4, pp.521-528, 1998.
  23. R. M. Friendship, J. H. Lumsden, I. McMillan, M. R. Wilson, "Hematology and biochemistry reference values for Ontario swine", Canadian Journal of Veterinary Research, Vol.48, No.4, pp.390-393, 1984.
  24. A. Schiavone, M. Cullere, M. D. Marco, M. Meneguz, I. Biasato, S. Bergagna, D. Dezzutto, F. Gai, S. Dabbou, L. Gasco, A. D. Zotte, "Partial or total replacement of soybean oil by black soldier fly larvae (Hermetia illucens L. ) fat in broiler diets: effect on growth performances, feed-choice, blood traits, carcass characteristics and meat quality", Italian Journal of Animal Science, Vol.16, No.1, pp.93-100, 2017. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/1828051X.2016.1249968
  25. S. Dabbou, F. Gai, I. Biasato, M. T. Capucchio, E. Biasibetti, D. Dezzutto, M. Meneguz, I. Placha, L. Gasco, A. Schiavone, "Productive performance and blood profiles of laying hens fed Hermetia illucens larvae meal as total replacement of soybean meal from 24 to 45 weeks of age", Poultry Science, Vol.96, No.6, pp.1783-1790, 2017. DOI: https://doi.org/10.3382/ps/pew461
  26. T. Guzik, R. Korbut, T. Adamek-Guzik, "Nitric oxide and superoxide in inflammation and immune regulation", Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology, Vol.54, No.4, pp.469-487, 2003.
  27. T. T. MacDonald, G. Monteleone, "Immunity, inflammation, and allergy in the gut", Science, Vol.307, No.5717, pp.1920-1925, 2005. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1106442
  28. R. E. W. Hancock, M. G. Scott, "The role of antimicrobial peptides in animal defenses", Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Vol.97, No.16, pp.8856-8861, 2000. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.97.16.8856
  29. L. T. Chwen, H. L. Foo, N. T. Thanh, D. W. Choe, "Growth performance, plasma fatty acids, villous height and crypt depth of pre-weaning piglets fed with medium chain triacylglycerol", Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, Vol.26, No.5, pp.700-704, 2013. DOI: https://doi.org/10.5713/ajas.2012.12561
  30. R. T. Zijlstra, K. Y. Whang, R. A. Easter, J. Odle, "Effect of feeding a milk replacer to early-weaned pigs on growth, body composition, and small intestinal morphology, compared with suckled littermates", Animal Feed Science and Technology, Vol.74, No.12, pp.2948-2959, 1996. DOI: https://doi.org/10.2527/1996.74122948x
  31. M. Yu, Z. Li, W. Chen, T. Rong, G. Wang, X. Ma, "Hermetia illucens larvae as a potential dietary protein source altered the microbiota and modulated mucosal immune status in the colon of finishing pigs", Journal of Animal Science and Biotechnology, Vol.10, Article No.50, 2019. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1186/s40104-019-0358-1