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Hyaluronidase: An overview of its properties, applications, and side effects

  • Received : 2020.04.21
  • Accepted : 2020.07.01
  • Published : 2020.07.15

Abstract

Hyaluronidase, an enzyme that breaks down hyaluronic acid, has long been used to increase the absorption of drugs into tissue and to reduce tissue damage in cases of extravasation of a drug. With the increasing popularity of hyaluronic acid filler, hyaluronidase has become an essential drug for the correction of complications and unsatisfactory results after filler injection. For this reason, when performing procedures using hyaluronic acid filler, a sufficient knowledge of hyaluronidase is required. In order for hyaluronidase to dissolve a hyaluronic acid filler, it must interact with its binding sites within the hyaluronic acid. The reaction of a filler to hyaluronidase depends on the hyaluronic acid concentration, the number of crosslinks, and the form of the filler. Hyaluronidase is rapidly degraded and deactivated in the body. Therefore, in order to dissolve a hyaluronic acid filler, a sufficient amount of hyaluronidase must be injected close to the filler. If the filler is placed subcutaneously, injection of hyaluronidase into the filler itself may help, but if the filler is placed within a blood vessel, it is sufficient to inject hyaluronidase in the vicinity of the vessel, instead of into the filler itself. Allergic reactions are a common side effect of hyaluronidase. Most allergic reactions to hyaluronidase are local, but systemic reactions may occur in infrequent cases. Since most allergic responses to hyaluronidase are immediate hypersensitivity reactions, skin tests are recommended before use. However, some patients experience delayed allergic reactions, which skin tests may not predict.

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