Analysis of Misconceptions on Oceanic Front and Fishing Ground in Secondary-School Science and Earth Science Textbooks

중등학교 과학 및 지구과학 교과서 조경 수역 및 어장에 관한 오개념 분석

  • Park, Kyung-Ae (Department of Earth Science Education, Seoul National University) ;
  • Lee, Jae Yon (Chungdam Middle School) ;
  • Kang, Chang-Keun (School of Earth Sciences & Environmental Engineering, Gwangju Institute of Science and Technology) ;
  • Kim, Chang-Sin (Fisheries Resource Management Division, National Institute of Fisheries Science)
  • Received : 2020.10.16
  • Accepted : 2020.10.26
  • Published : 2020.10.31


Oceanic fronts, which are areas where sea water with different properties meet in the ocean, play an important role in controlling weather and climate change through air-sea interactions and marine dynamics such as heat and momentum exchange and processes by which properties of sea water are mixed. Such oceanic fronts have long been described in secondary school textbooks with the term 'Jokyung water zone (JWC hereafter) or oceanic front', meaning areas where the different currents met, and were related to fishing grounds in the East Sea. However, higher education materials and marine scientists have not used this term for the past few decades; therefore, the appropriateness of the term needs to be analyzed to remove any misconceptions presented. This study analyzed 11 secondary school textbooks (5 middle school textbooks and 6 high school textbooks) based on the revised 2015 curriculum. A survey of 30 secondary school science teachers was also conducted to analyze their awareness of the problems. An analysis of the textbook contents related to the JWC and fishing grounds found several errors and misconceptions that did not correspond with scientific facts. Although the textbooks mainly uses the concept of the JWC to represent the meeting of cold and warm currents, it would be reasonable to replace it with the more comprehensive term 'oceanic front', which would indicate an area where different properties of sea water-such as its temperature, salinity, density, and velocity-interact. In the textbooks, seasonal changes in the fishing grounds are linked to seasonal changes in the North Korean Cold Current (NKCC), which moves southwards in winter and northwards in summer; this is the complete opposite of previous scientific knowledge, which describes it strengthening in summer. Fishing grounds are not limited to narrow coastal zones; they are widespread throughout the East Sea. The results of the survey of teachers demonstrated that this misconception has persisted for decades. This study emphasized the importance of using scientific knowledge to correct misconceptions related to the JWC, fishing grounds, and the NKCC and addressed the importance of transferring procedures to the curriculum. It is expected that the conclusions of this study will have an important role on textbook revision and teacher education in the future.

해수의 서로 다른 물성이 만나는 해양 전선은 해수의 열교환 및 운동량 교환, 물성의 혼합과정과 같은 해양 역학적 과정과 해양-대기 상호작용으로 기상변화와 기후 변화를 조절하는 중요한 역할을 한다. 이러한 해양 전선이 중등학교 교과서에는 해류가 만난다는 의미를 가지는 '조경 수역'이라는 용어로 사용되고 있으며 동해 어장과의 관련성을 제시하고 있다. 그러나 고등교육과 해양과학자들은 지난 수십 년 동안 이 이 용어를 사용하지 않고 있어서 용어의 적절성이 조사되어야 하며 오개념을 제거할 필요성이 있다. 본 연구에서는 2015 개정교육과정에 기반한 중등학교 교과서 11종(중학교 5종, 고등학교 6종)을 활용하여 이와 관련된 교과 내용을 분석하였다. 또한 중등학교 과학교사 30인을 대상으로 설문 조사를 실시하여 이 문제에 대한 교사들의 인지 정도를 분석하였다. 조경 수역과 어장에 관한 교과서의 내용을 분석한 결과, 과학적 사실과 부합하지 않는 상당히 많은 오류와 오개념이 발견되었다. 교과서에서 조경 수역이라는 개념이 한류와 난류가 만나는 의미로 주로 활용되고 있으나, 수온, 염분, 밀도, 유속 등 해양의 서로 다른 물성이 접하는 '해양 전선'이라는 포괄적인 용어로 대체하는 것이 바람직하다. 교과서에서는 어장의 계절변동을 겨울에 남하하고 여름에 북상하고 북한한류의 계절변동과 연결하고 설명하고 있지만 이는 북한한류의 여름철 강화에 관한 그동안의 과학적 사실에 위배되는 내용이다. 동해의 어장은 동해안 좁은 영역에 국한된 것이 아니라 훨씬 더 넓은 해역에 광범위하게 분포하고 있다. 교사들의 설문 결과는 이러한 오개념이 지난 수십 년 동안 지속되어 왔음을 입증하였다. 본 연구는 조경 수역, 어장, 북한한류와 관련된 오개념을 수정하기 위한 과학적 지식의 중요성과 교육과정으로의 전달 과정의 중요성을 강조하였다. 향후 이 연구가 교과서 수정과 교사교육에 중요한 역할을 할 수 있기를 기대한다.


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