Roasting and Cryogenic Grinding Enhance the Antioxidant Property of Sword Beans (Canavalia gladiata)

  • Jung, Ju-Yeong (Department of Food Science and Engineering, Ewha Womans University) ;
  • Rhee, Jin-Kyu (Department of Food Science and Engineering, Ewha Womans University)
  • Received : 2020.03.31
  • Accepted : 2020.08.18
  • Published : 2020.11.28


The objective of this study was to optimize the conditions for enhancing the antioxidant properties of sword bean (Canavalia gladiata) as a coffee substitute in two processing methods, roasting and grinding. The optimum conditions for removing off-flavor of the bean and maximizing functionality and efficiency were light roasting and cryogenic grinding (< 53 ㎛). In these conditions, extraction yield was 16.75%, total phenolic content (TPC) was 69.82 ± 0.35 mg gallic acid equivalents/g, and total flavonoid content (TFC) was 168.81 ± 1.64 mg quercetin equivalents/100 g. The antioxidant properties were 77.58 ± 0.27% for DPPH radical scavenging activity and 58.02 ± 0.76 mg Trolox equivalents/g for ABTS radical scavenging activity. The values for TFC and ABTS radical scavenging activity were significantly higher (p < 0.05) than in other conditions, and TPC and DPPH radical scavenging activity were second highest in lightly roasted beans, following raw beans. HS-SPME/GC-MS analysis confirmed that the amino acids and carbohydrates, which are the main components of sword bean, were condensed into other volatile flavor compounds, such as derivatives of furan, pyrazine, and pyrrole during roasting. Roasted and cryogenically ground (cryo-ground) sword beans showed higher functionality in terms of TFC, DPPH, and ABTS radical scavenging activities compared to those of coffee. Overall results showed that light roasting and cryogenic grinding are the most suitable processing conditions for enhancing the bioactivity of sword beans.



  1. Nurminen ML, Niittynen L, Korpela R, Vapaatalo H. 1999. Coffee, caffeine and blood pressure: a critical review. Eur. J. Clin. Nutr. 53: 831-839.
  2. McCusker RR, Fuehrlein B, Goldberger BA, Gold MS, Cone EJ. 2006. Caffeine content of decaffeinated coffee. J. Anal. Toxicol. 30: 611-613.
  3. Lee KH, Kim MJ, Kim AJ. 2014. Physicochemical composition and antioxidative activities of Rhynchosia nulubilis according to roasting temperature. J. Korean Soc. Food Sci. Nutr. 43: 675-681.
  4. Bressani R, Brenes RG, Garcia A, Elias LG. 1987. Chemical composition, amino acid content and protein quality of Canavalia spp. seeds. J. Sci. Food Agric. 40: 17-23.
  5. Cho YS, Bae YI, Shim KH. 1999. Chemical components in different parts of Korean sword bean (Canavalia gladiata). Korean J. Postharvest Sci. Technol. 6: 475-480.
  6. Kay DE. 1979. TPI Crops and Product Digest, pp.435. 3rd Ed. Tropical Products Institute, Ministry of Overseas Development, London.
  7. Ekanayake S, Jansz ER, Nair BM. 2000. Literature review of an underutilized legume: Canavalia gladiata L. Plant Foods Hum. Nutr. 55: 305-321.
  8. Soetan KO, Antia RE. 2018. Comparative phytochemicals and in vitro antioxidative effects of jack beans (Canavalia ensiformis) and sword beans (Canavalia gladiata). Ann. Food Sci. Technol. 19: 499-505.
  9. Jeon KS, Na HJ, Kim YM, Kwon HJ. 2005. Antiangiogenic activity of 4-O-methylgallic acid from Canavalia gladiata, a dietary legume. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 330: 1268-1274.
  10. Gan RY, Lui WY, Corke H. 2016. Sword bean (Canavalia gladiata) as a source of antioxidant phenolics. Int. J. Food Sci. Tech. 51: 156-162.
  11. Kim KH, Kim SH, Cho IS, Kim HY, Kim DS, Lee YC. 2013. Studies on the regulation of hematopoietic enhancement of Brassica campestris var narinosa., Canavalia gladiata DC semen and their combinational prescription via Jak2/STAT5/GATA1 Pathway in Sca-1+ hematopoietic stem cells. Korea J. Herbol. 28: 7-16.
  12. Kim OK, Nam DE, You YH, Jun WJ, Lee JM. 2013. Protective effect of Canavalia gladiata on gastric inflammation induced by alcohol treatment in rats. J. Korean Soc. Food Sci. Nutr. 42: 690-696.
  13. Kumar CP, Reddy YN. 2014. Protective effect of Canavalia gladiata (sword bean) fruit extracts and its flavanoidal contents, against azathioprine-induced toxicity in hepatocytes of albino rats. Toxicol. Environ. Chem. 96: 474-481.
  14. Yoon SK, Kim WJ. 1989. Effects of roasting conditions on quality and yields of barley tea. Korean J. Food Sci. Technol.21: 575-582.
  15. Murkovic M, Piironen V, Lampi AM, Kraushofer T, Sontag G. 2004. Changes in chemical composition of pumpkin seeds during the roasting process for production of pumpkin seed oil (Part 1: non-volatile compounds). Food Chem. 84: 359-365.
  16. Montavon P, Mauron AF, Duruz E. 2003. Changes in green coffee protein profiles during roasting. J. Agric. Food Chem. 51: 2335-2343.
  17. Song YB, Lee KS, Lee MS, Kim AJ. 2013. Bioactivitiy changes in mung beans according to the roasting time. J. Korean Soc. Food Sci. Nutr. 26: 502-507.
  18. Jeong SO, Kim HY, Han JS, Kim MJ, Kang MS, Kim AJ. 2016. Manufacture and quality evaluation of beverage with prepared with roasted seoritae. J. Korean Soc. Food Sci. Nutr. 29: 557-564.
  19. Shu TS, Lee G, Seo YK, Lee KP, Kim DJ. 2004. Micro particle technology in food science. Food Sci. Ind. 37: 17-21.
  20. Singh KK, Goswami TK. 2000. Thermal properties of cumin seed. J. Food Eng. 45: 181-187.
  21. Singh KK, Goswami TK. 1999. Studies on cryogenic grinding of cumin seed. J. Food Process Eng. 22: 175-190.
  22. Ramkissoon JS, Mahomoodally MF, Ahmed N, Subratty AH. 2013. Antioxidant and anti-glycation activities correlates with phenolic composition of tropical medicinal herbs. Asian Pac. J. Trop Med. 6: 561-569.
  23. Arvouet-Grand A, Vennat B, Pourrat A, Legret P. 1994. Standardization of propolis extract and identification of principal constituents. J. Pharm. Belg. 49: 462-468.
  24. Blois MS. 1958. Antioxidant determinations by the use of a stable free radical. Nature 181: 1199.
  25. Lee JC, Pae SI. 2014. A study on the sensory properties according to roasting conditions of coffee beans by continents. IJTHR 28: 233-248.
  26. Kim YA, Kim JS. 2014. Bitter taste-inducing chemical composition profile and sensory characterization of arabica coffee as affected by the degree of roasting. J. Korea Soc. Coffee Ind. 3: 10-18.
  27. Choi HM, Namkung H, Kim DW, Park CY. 2015. An experimental study on the automation of semi-hot-air coffee roasting process. J. Korean Soc. Manuf. Technol. Eng. 24: 687-695.
  28. Lee JW, Yoon HH. 2018. Physiochemical characteristics and acceptance of Colombia coffee according to different decaffeination processes and roasting conditions. Culi. Sci. Hos. Res. 24: 123-130.
  29. Warechowska M, Markowska A, Warechowski J, Mis A, Nawrocka A. 2016. Effect of tempering moisture of wheat on grinding energy, middlings and flour size distribution, and gluten and dough mixing properties. J. Cereal Sci. 69: 306-312.
  30. Manohar B, Sridhar B. 2001. Size and shape characterization of conventionally and cryogenically ground turmeric (Curcuma domestica) particles. Powder Technol. 120: 292-297.
  31. Kim JP, Yang YS, Kim JH, Lee HH, Kim ES, Moon YW, et al. 2012. Chemical properties and DPPH radical scavenging ability of sword bean (Canavalia gladiata) extract. Korean J. Food Sci. Technol. 44: 441-446.
  32. Ahmed ZA, Nadulski R, Kobus Z, Zawislak K. 2015. The influence of grain moisture content on specific energy during spring wheat grinding. Agric. Agric. Sci. Procedia. 7: 309-312.
  33. Lee YJ, Lee MG, Yoon WB. 2013. Effect of seed moisture content on the grinding kinetics, yield and quality of soybean oil. J. Food Eng. 119: 758-764.
  34. Cho Y, Seo K, Shim K. 2000. Antimicrobial activities of Korean sword bean (Canavalia gladiata) extracts. Korean J. Food Preserv. 7: 113-116.
  35. Gan RY, Deng ZQ, Yan AX, Shah NP, Lui WY, Chan CL, et al. 2016. Pigmented edible bean coats as natural sources of polyphenols with antioxidant and antibacterial effects. LWT - Food Sci. Technol. 73: 168-177.
  36. Kim JP, Lee HH, Moon JH, Ha DR, Kim ES, Kim JH, et al. 2013. Isolation and identification of antioxidants from methanol extract of sword bean (Canavalia gladiata). Korean J. Food Sci. Technol. 45: 777-784.
  37. Rasool MK, Sabina EP, Ramya SR, Preety P, Patel S, Mandal N, et al. 2010. Hepatoprotective and antioxidant effects of gallic acid in paracetamol‐induced liver damage in mice. J. Pharm. Pharmacol. 62: 638-643.
  38. Locatelli C, Filippin-Monteiro FB, Creczynski-Pasa TB. 2013. Alkyl esters of gallic acid as anticancer agents: a review. Eur. J. Med. Chem. 60: 233-239.
  39. Diaz-Gomez R, Lopez-Solis R, Obreque-Slier E, Toledo-Araya H. 2013. Comparative antibacterial effect of gallic acid and catechin against Helicobacter pylori. LWT - Food Sci. Technol. 54: 331-335.
  40. Asnaashari M, Farhoosh R, Sharif A. 2014. Antioxidant activity of gallic acid and methyl gallate in triacylglycerols of Kilka fish oil and its oil-in-water emulsion. Food Chem. 159: 439-444.
  41. Gan RY, Kong KW, Li HB, Wu K, Ge YY, Chan CL, et al. 2018. Separation, identification, and bioactivities of the main gallotannins of red sword bean (Canavalia gladiata) coats. Front. Chem. 6: 39.
  42. Kim US, Kim JY, Kim SJ, Moon KH, Baek SH. 2012. Isoflavonoid contents, antibacterial activities, and physiological activities of Cheonggukjang made from sword bean. J. Korean Soc. Food Sci. Nutr. 41: 174-181.
  43. Gan RY, Wang MF, Lui WY, Wu K, Dai SH, Sui ZQ, et al. 2017. Diversity in antioxidant capacity, phenolic contents, and flavonoid contents of 42 edible beans from China. Cereal Chem. 94: 291-297.
  44. Murakami T, Kohno K, Kishi A, Matsuda H, Yoshikawa M. 2000. Medicinal foodstuffs. XIX. Absolute stereostructures of canavalioside, a new ent-kaurane-type diterpene glycoside, and gladiatosides A1, A2, A3, B1, B2, B3, C1, and C2, new acylated flavonol glycosides, from sword bean, the seeds of Canavalia gladiata. Chem. Pharm. Bull. 48: 1673-1680.
  45. Kim SY, Jeong SM, Park WP, Nam KC, Ahn DU, Lee SC. 2006. Effect of heating conditions of grape seeds on the antioxidant activity of grape seed extracts. Food Chem. 97: 472-479.
  46. Wang LF, Kim DM, Lee CY. 2000. Effects of heat processing and storage on flavanols and sensory qualities of green tea beverage. J. Agric. Food Chem. 48: 4227-4232.
  47. Puchau B, Zulet MA, de Echavarri AG, Hermsdorff HHM, Martinez JA. 2010. Dietary total antioxidant capacity is negatively associated with some metabolic syndrome features in healthy young adults. Nutrition 26: 534-541.
  48. Brighenti F, Valtuena S, Pellegrini N, Ardigo D, Del Rio D, Salvatore S, et al. 2005. Total antioxidant capacity of the diet is inversely and independently related to plasma concentration of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein in adult Italian subjects. Br. J. Nutr. 93: 619-625.
  49. Floegel A, Kim DO, Chung SJ, Koo SI, Chun OK. 2011. Comparison of ABTS/DPPH assays to measure antioxidant capacity in popular antioxidant-rich US foods. J. Food Compos. Anal. 24: 1043-1048.
  50. Lee SH, Hwang IG, Lee YR, Joung EM, Jeong HS, Lee HB. 2009. Physicochemical characteristics and antioxidant activity of heated radish (Raphanus sativus L.) extracts. J. Kor. Soc. Food Sci. Nutr. 38: 490-495.
  51. Arctander S. 1969. Perfume and Flavor Chemicals (Aroma Chemicals) Vol.1. pp. 1217-1218. 1st Ed. Allured Publishing Corporation, Illinois.
  52. Nakama A, Kim EH, Shinohara K, Omura H. 1993. Formation of furfural derivatives in amino-carbonyl reaction. Biosci. Biotechol. Biochem. 57: 1757-1759.
  53. Flament I, Bessiere-Thomas Y. 2001. Coffee flavor chemistry, pp. 37-52. 1st Ed. John Wiley & Sons, West Sussex, England.
  54. Shibamoto T. 1983. Heterocyclic compounds in browning and browning/nitrite model systems: Occurrence, formation mechanisms, flavor characteristics and mutagenic activity, pp. 229-278. In Charalambous G, Ingeltt G (eds.), Instrumental Analysis of Foods Vol.1, 1st Ed. Elsevier, Amsterdam.
  55. Koehler PE, Odell GV. 1970. Factors affecting the formation of pyrazine compounds in sugar-amine reactions. J. Agric. Food Chem. 18: 895-898.
  56. Holscher W, Vitzthum O, Steinhart H. 1990. Identification and sensorial evaluation of aroma-impact-compounds in roasted Colombian coffee. Cafe-cacao-the 34: 205-212.
  57. Maeztu L, Sanz C, Andueza S, Paz de Pena M, Bello J, Cid C. 2001. Characterization of espresso coffee aroma by static headspace GC− MS and sensory flavor profile. J Agric. Food Chem. 49: 5437-5444.
  58. Hughes E, Smith R. 1946. The nicotinic acid content of coffee. J. Soc. Chem. Ind. 65: 284-286.