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The Definition of Frail Elderly and the Frailty Screening Assessment Tool: A Systematic Review

허약노인의 정의 및 허약 선별 평가도구에 관한 체계적 고찰

  • Lee, Gyeong A (Dept. of Occupational Therapy, Graduate School, Yonsei University) ;
  • Park, Ji-Hyuk (Dept. of Occupational Therapy, College of Software Digital Healthcare Convergence, Yonsei University)
  • 이경아 (연세대학교 일반대학원 작업치료학과) ;
  • 박지혁 (연세대학교 소프트웨어디지털헬스케어융합대학 작업치료학과)
  • Received : 2021.05.07
  • Accepted : 2021.07.06
  • Published : 2021.08.31

Abstract

Objective : The objective of this study was to present the components of frailty by organizing the definitions of frail elderly and analyzing the tools used to screen them. Methods : This study searched for articles at involved frailty screening assessments in the elderly. Databases including CINAHL, Embase, Medline Complete, and PubMed were searched. The search terms were "assess" AND "frailty" AND "screening" AND ("frail elderly" OR "elderly"). Results : A total of 539 articles were identified by the search and 11 articles were selected. Frailty occurs due to the depressed function of multidimensional factors, and a frail elderly person is defined as one at high risk of health degeneration, functional impairment, and occurrence of disability, and having a high level of threat to life. Seven tools were selected from 11 articles. The most frequently used tool was the frailty phenotype, which was used in five articles (45.4%). The identified components of frailty were physical, activity participation, nutrition, psychological, social, overall health, and age. Conclusion : The results confirmed the definition and components of frailty. This study is expected to contribute to the future development of standardized evaluation tools for screening frail elderly individuals and intervention programs for the management of the frail elderly.

목적 : 본 연구에서는 허약노인의 정의를 정리하고, 허약노인 선별 시 사용되는 도구들을 분석함으로써 허약의 구성 요소를 제시하고자 한다. 연구방법 : 고령자에게 허약 선별 평가가 실시된 문헌을 검색하기 위해 CINAHL, Embase, Medline Complete, PubMed를 사용하였다. 검색어는 "assess" AND "frailty" AND "screening" AND ("frail elderly" OR "elderly")를 사용하였다. 결과 : 검색 결과로 얻은 539편의 문헌 중 선정기준에 부합하는 11편의 연구가 최종적으로 도출되었다. 본 고찰을 통해 허약은 다차원적 요인의 기능 저하로 인해 발생하며, 허약노인은 '건강 악화·기능손상·장애 발생의 가능성이 높고, 생명에 대한 위협 수준이 높은 사람'으로 정의되었다. 11편의 문헌 중 허약 선별 평가도구는 총 7종류로 Phenotype of frailty가 5편(45.4%)으로 가장 많이 사용되었다. 7개의 선별 평가도구에서 제시된 허약의 구성 요소는 신체적 요소(신체적 기능), 활동참여(일상생활활동, 수단적 일상생활활동), 영양상태(체중감소, 체질량 지수), 정신적 요소(인지, 정서), 사회적 요소(사회적 상호작용, 사회적지지, 사회적 환경), 전반적 건강 및 나이로 나타났다. 결론 : 본 연구를 통해 허약의 정의 및 구성 요소를 제시하였다. 이는 향후 허약노인 선별을 위한 표준화된 선별 평가도구 및 중재 프로그램 개발에 대한 기초자료가 될 것으로 사료된다.

Keywords

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