Proceedings of the Korea Concrete Institute Conference (한국콘크리트학회:학술대회논문집)
 Semi Annual
Domain
 Materials ＞ Ceramic Materials
1998.10a

Recently it has become general to use the inhibitor with a view to protecting corrosion of rebars in concrete. As the inhibitors used in construction works are almost made in America or Japan, we immediately need to begin home production of inhibitors. In this paper, to estimate the domestic anodic inhibitor of nitrite in comparison with foreign made inhibitor we made some fundamental experiments of setting time, slump and compressive strength. Besides, we analysed the effect of corrosion protection of inhibitor on the ground of corrosion current, resistance to chloride penetration and diffusion of chloride ingress in concrete.

For substitution for crushed sand, high strength aggregate for cement and concrete using coal ash as a main material was prepared and then compared its physical properties with those of crushed sand. Effect of mix proportion change of raw materials on the property of aggregate was checked. On the basis of these experimental results we are going to comprehend the reutilization of coal ash and utilize a basic data for judging possibility the substitution of crushed sand.

Fusion temperature of fly ash was determined with wasted glass wool and borax using ash fusion determinator, 0.5wt% of bentonite and water glass used as binder, 50wt% of wasted glass wool added to fly ash, fusion temperature of fly ash was 1, 156
$^{\circ}C$ . Pellet was prepared, and then sintered at 1, 00$0^{\circ}C$ and 1, 10$0^{\circ}C$ . Waterabsorption rate, specific gravity, porosity and pore structure of sintering aggregate was determined. 
The Elastic modulus depends on the elastic property of composition materials, the gravity of aggregate, the bond strength of binder, the usage and quantity of admixture, curing and measuring method, etc. Accordingly, the aim of this study, by manufacturing concrete of practical high strength range(600~ 1000kg/
$\textrm{cm}^2$ ) with the specific cement and mineral admixtures, is to compare elastic modulus with the existing equations and also to estimate elastic property of use materials. As a result, it could be confirmed that the existing equations which were proposed by the ACI 363, CEBFIP Code, and NewRC have a tendency to the overestimation in general. However, it could be confirmed that the KCI96 and Norwegian NS 3473 equations are closed to measuring results, and that the elastic modulus property have a different tendency due to types of cements. 
Concrete is considered to be one of the excellent and versatile shielding material and is widely used for the radiation shielding materials. This paper aims to study mechanical properties of concrete by using normal cement, natural and heavyweight aggregate and their radiation shielding effects through radiation transmission tests.

Aggregate is cheaper than cement and confers considerable technical advantages on concrete, which has a higher volume stability and better durability than hydrated cement paste alone. and coarse aggregate is the largest particle size out of concrete and is much affect on the fruidity, compaction and nonsegregation ability of high flowing concrete. As the compaction, fillingability and shrinkage of high flowing concrete, the volume ratio of coarse aggregate is prescribed by Japanese Architectural Standard Specificateon (JASS 5) : from 0.500 to 0.500㎥/㎥. It is the aim of this study to compare and analysis the fruidity, fillingability and nonsegregation of high flosing concrete according to the volume ratio of coarse aggregate of concrete(G/Glim).

This research is to examine the selected method of optimal mixing proportion and cost analysis in the super flowing concrete. As confined water
$ratio( and K is introduced, itis to establish optimal mixing design of super flowing concrete according to the steps of paste, mortar and concrete. From paste and mortar test, it was led to$\beta_p$ )$$ and$\beta_p$ $$K_p$ satisfying the optimum condions depending on the kinds of binders. Then$ and$\beta_p$ $$K_p$ is reflected to the mix condition of super flowing concrete. The result of test, the mix condition of super flowing concrete satisfied the quality performance of concrete with adjustment of additional rate of the superplasticizer. Besides, in case of design strength$350kg/\textrm{cm}^2$ of concrete, material cost in super flowing concrete is able to be reduced 5~16% in replacement of fly ash 30% in ordinary portland cement and slag cement. 
In this study, to increase fluidity and resistance of segregation of materials, the effect of each of the materials, which have effects on high performance concrete from investigating the properties of strength and drying shrinkage of high performance concrete made by the basic mix proportion used flyash and ground granulated blastfurnace slag after hardening, has been checked. According to the experimental results, fluidity on W/C = 34% was satisfied within slumpflow 65
$\pm$ 5cm and Utype selfcompactability difference 5cm. On the properties of strength, high performance concrete produced compressive strength over 400kg/$\textrm{cm}^2$ in 28days when powder was replaced by 40% of flyash and 60% of ground granulated blastfurnace slag. And compressive strength was taken over 600kg/$\textrm{cm}^2$ equal to nonreplacement in 91days. Also, the length change of concrete with the addition of flyash was smaller than that without it. Therefore, it may be effective on the decrease of drying shrinkage volume. 
In this study, to increase fluidity and resistance of segregation of materials, the effect of each of the materials, which have effects on high performance concrete from investigating the properties of strength and drying shrinkage of high performance concrete made by the basic mix proportion used flyash and ground granulated blastfurnace slag after hardening, has been checked. By the results of this experiment, fluidity on W/C=34% was satisfied within slumpflow 65
$\pm$ 5cm and Utype selfcompacting difference 5cm. On the properties of strength, high performance concrete produced compressive strength over 400kg/$\textrm{cm}^2$ in 28days when powder was replaced by 40% of flyash and 60% of ground granulated blastfurnace slag. And compressive strength was taken over 600kg/$\textrm{cm}^2$ equal to nonreplacement in 91days. Also, the length change of concrete with the addition of flyash was smaller than that without it. Therefore, it may be effective on the decrease of drying shrinkage volume. 
The aim of this study is to compare the development of compressive strength of highFlowing concrete with maturity and to investigate the applicability of strength prediction models of concrete. An experiment was attempted on the highflowing concrete mixes using Ordinary portland cement, High belite cement, Blast furance slage cement and replaced Flyash of 30% by weight of Ordinary portland cement, the waterbinder ratios of mixes being 0.35 and the curing temperatures being 30, 20, 10, 5
$^{\circ}C$ . Test results of mixes are statistically analyzed to infer the correlation coefficient between the maturity and the compressive strength of highflowing concrete. 
Recently great efforts and investment have been made in order to achieve economical production by applying new methods like minimization of manpower into construction field. Therefore in this study, we have been focused on the development and practical using of semihighfluidity concrete with viscosity agent and flyash, also we find out the optimum mix proportions to accomplish good quality semihighfluidity concrete. The results of this study show that semihighfluidity concrete with viscosity agent of 0.03~0.1%(W
$\times$ %) and the ratio of flyash replacement of 10~20% in W/B of 35~45% has better performance than the highfluidityconcrete. 
In the present study, the high strength concrete which is adequate for the long span PC beam above 40 meters has been developed. The optimum cement for high strength concerete was selected through laboratory tests and insitu mockup applications. The optical concrete mix design was performed, and the properties of fresh concrete and hardened concrete have been investigated. These results of laboratory study are analized and compared to domestic and foregn design codes and specifications. Finally, the developed high strength concrete was applied to halfscale PSC beams and showed good applicability in field conditions. It is conclude that hte developed high strength concrete can be applied to civil and architectural structures in the field applications.

Usually the flowing concrete manufactured upon normalmixed base concrete would segregate due to the less of fine particle content. In the previous studies, a new type admixture(liquid segregation reducing type superplasticizer) has been developed to prevent such segregation without modification of base concrete mixture. In this study, the tests are performed in laboratory to evaluate the admixture by analyzing the properties of flowing concrete with different water to cement ratios, so that it could be used in the fields. According to the results, this kind of superplasticizer could improve the fluidity of concrete without causing segregation. However, it seems to be more desirable of the superplasticizer could be adjusted, before it is put into the practical use, not to cause some other problems such as rapid rate of slump and air loss and retarding of setting time.

Aggregate as the component of High Flowing Concrete has much influence on the properties of High Flowing Concrete according to the quality and condition because the aggregate occupy a lot of concrete volume. The shape and size of aggregate affect a lot spatial passibility and fillingability. The segregation is easy to occur when the rate of Fine aggregate is high so that Fluidity is much affected by aggregate factor. In this study, therefore, we try to understand the various fluidity according to the fine aggregate of standard grade rang, the size of Coarse aggregate and the rate of fine aggregate to confirm the manufacturing possibility of High Flowing Concrete by examination on the influence of fresh state of high flowing concrete such as flowability, reinforcement passibility, fillingability, segregation resistance.

Recently the study on high flowing concrete which has high workability and Selfcompacting is being proceeded actively in the university and corporative laboratory. There are some cases that has been applied to the field. This high flowing concrete has higher fluidity and segregation resistance than Plain of flowing concrete. And it is being focused as a remarkable knowhow which can make highquality concrete and reduction effect of labor force. This properties of high flowing concrete are influenced by the relationship of several factors; binder content, water binder ratio and unit water content. It is the aim of this study to propose reference data at mix design of high flowing concrete, after comparing and analyzing the fluidity and strength properties of high flowing concrete according to water binder content ratio and unit water content.

Generally, the concrete constructed during cold weather has the frozen damage which cause the fatal damage so that heat curing and sheet curing was performed to prevent the early freezing of concrete. However, partial refrigeration caused by thermal gradient has many troubles so that the construction hasn`t been done as possible. This paper presents the development of strenth properties and optimal mix design against frozen damage under the cold weather, 1
$0^{\circ}C$ below the zero. 
Plastic shrinkage cracking is a major concern for concrete, especially for flat structures as highway pavement, slabs for parking garages, and walls. One of the methods to reduce the adverse effect of plastic shrinkage cracking is to reinforced concrete with short randomly distributed fibers. The contribution of cellulose fiber to the plastic shrinkage crack reduction potential of cement composites and its evaluation are presented in this paper. The effects of differing amounts of fibers(0.9kg/㎥, 1.3kg/㎥, 1.5kg/㎥) were studied. The results of tests of the cellulose fiber reinforced concrete were compared with plain concrete and polypropylene fiber reinforced concrete. Results indicated that cellulose fiber reinforcement showed an ability to reduce the total area and maximum crack width significantly(as compared to plain concreted to plain concrete and polypropylene fiber concrete).

Recently the use of the underwater concrete with the antiwashout admixture is increased considerably. When we intend to apply it to the field, we must consider the water temperature effect. In this study, we investigate the properties of setting time, early strength, hydration temperature history and core strength with the antiwashout underwater concrete in the water temperature 8
$^{\circ}C$ , 14$^{\circ}C$ and 22$^{\circ}C$ respectively. As a result of experiment, as the water temperature is decreasing, setting time is delayed twice of three times and early strength is lower from 10% to 50%. Therefore to compensate the decrease of the early strength, we used the accelerator and investigated the concrete properties. 
This research was conducted to evaluate the adhesion in tension of the polymer mortars for cement concrete repair. Various polymer types, binder ratios, and wet/dry conditions of the surface were considered in this study. Styrenebutadiene rubber (SBR) and ethylen vinyl acetate (EVA) used for polymer cement mortars. Epoxy resin (EP), and unsaturated polyester resin (UP) were used for polymer mertars. Adhesion in tension for the dry condition of the substrate surface was higher than that for the wet condition of the substrate surface under the same binder ratio. Therefore, in repairing concrete, the dry surface condition was effective on adhesion.

Steel fiber reinforced concrete(SFRC) is a composite material possessing many physical and mechanical properties which are distinct from unreinforced concrete. The use of steel fiber reinforcement to improve the flexural and tensile strengths, extensibility and toughness of ordinary cement concrete is well known at present, but reinforcement of polymer concrete with steel fibers has been hardly reported untill now. The objective of this study was to improve the properties of the polymer concrete by addition of steel fibers. In this paper steel fiber reinforced polymer concrete is prepared with various steel fiber contents and aspect ratio(
$\ell$ /d), and their mechanical properties were investigated experimentally. 
The objective of this study is to investigate the characteristic change of antiwashout underwater concrete with variation of blend ratio of sea sand and fine aggregate percentage through experimental researches. According to the experiments results, when sea sand are mixed in antiwashout underwater concrete mixture by about 40% per total fine aggregate, in fine aggregate percentage of 40%, it is found that the flowability fit and the compressive strength is higher others.

Preplaced aggregate concrete in the building fields has recently been used in the partial repair works for damaged reinforced concrete structures, and polymermodified mortars have been employed as grouting mortars for the preplaced aggregate concrete. The objective of this study is to clear the properties of polymermodified grouting mortars. Polymermodified mortars using a polystyrene acrylic(St/Ac) emulsion as grouting mortars for preplaced aggregate concrete are prepared with various mix proportions, and tested for flexural and compressive strengths, adhesion in tension. The flexural strength of emulsionmodified grouting mortars does not give much variation with increasing fly ash replacement for cement and sandbinder ratio. With increasing polymerbinder ratio, the flexural strength and adhesion in tension of St/Ac emulsionmodified grouting mortars increases, become nearly constant or reaches a maximum at a polymerbinder ratio of 5%. From the test results, St/Ac emulsionmodified grouting mortar with a polymerbinder ratio of 5%, a fly ash replacement of 10% for cement and sandbinder ratio of 1.0 is recommended as a grouting mortar for preplaced aggregate concrete.

Permeable polymer cement concrete in this study is one of the invironment conscious concretes that can be applied at roads, side walks, parking lots, interlocking block and river embankment, etc. In this study, permeable polymer cement concretes using polymer dispersion(St/Ac) with watercement ratios of 25, 30, 35 and 40%, polymercement ratios of 0, 5, 10, 15 and 20%, and a ratio of cement to aggregate (by weight), 1 : 3.5(about 415kg/㎥), 1 : 4.0(about 375 kg/㎥), and 1 : 4.5(about 345kg/㎥) are prepared, and tested for compressive, flexural and tensile strength, and permeability. From the test results, increase in the strengths of permeable polymer cement concrete are clearly observed with increasing polymercement ratio, we can obtain the maximum strengths at watercement ratio of 35%. The optimum permeable polymer cement concrete according to application and location of work can be selected in various mix proportions.

The purpose of this study is to examine the influences of polystyrene content and St/UP on the setting shrinkage and strengths of polymer mortar with waste expanded polystyrene resin as a shrinkagereducing agent, and to recommend the optimum binder formulations for product of lowshrinkage polymer mortar. In this paper, polymer mortar is prepared with waste expanded polystyrene content and St/UP, and tested for setting shrinkage, flexural and compressive strengths. From the test results, irrespective of increasing of waste expanded polystyrene resin, the strengths reduction of polymer mortar with waste expanded polystyrene(EPS) resin is not recognized. And the setting shrinkage is reduced with EPS resin content. The waste expanded polystyrene resin as a shrinkagereducing agent can be used in the same manner as commercial polystyrene resin. In this study, we can obtain the optimum mix proportions of polymer mortar using EPS resin.

Prepackaged system consists out of a dry mix which contains cement, sand, redispersible polymer powder and admixtures in the right proportions. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the quality of prepackagedtype polymermodified mortar products using redispersible poly(ethylenevinyl acetate)(EVA) powder. Polymermodified mortars using the redispersible polymer powder with powdered with powdered shrinkagereducing agent were prepared with cellulose fiber contents of 0, 0.5, 1.0% and shrinkagereducing agent contents of 0, 4%, and tested for drying shrinkage, strength, adhesion in tension, water absorption. From the test results, the prepackagedtype polymermodified mortar products with 4% of shrinkagereducing agent content give good properties. and that their properties largely depends on the shrinkagereducing agent content rather than the cellulose fiber contents.

Nowadays, as the traffic volume is higher, the more pavement are expanded and constructed. In korea, the most of the pavement system were covered with an asphaltic concrete or portland cement concrete, so it need the new system of pavement to protect the natural environments. The objectives of this study are to investigate properties and applications of Soilcrete using FGC soil stabillizer and then to evaluate the benefits to be gained by Soilcrete pavement, when a pavement system of existing are replaced by Soilcrete, for example, environmental advantages, cost savings, ultimately.

Nowadays, shotcrete plays an essential part in he construction of underground structures, and steel fiber is so useful for increasing the toughness of the concrete that is spotlighted at tunnel or pavement site. A variety of tests have been developed to measure and quantity the improvements achievable in steel fiber reinforced concrete(SFRC) and shotcrete. But Korea doesn`t have specific standards in this respect, and the only criteria that KHC(Korea Highway Corporation) applies to tunnel shotcreting are flexural strength and toughness quotient. Test results in order to manage the quality of steel fiber reinforced concrete and shocrete are very affected by various test method. Therefore, this study deals with the test methodological effects on SFRC quality. The major interests are loading method, that is, load control and displacement control, loading velocity, support condition.

Recently, high performance concrete developed has a good quality at fresh and hardened state, but high binder contents results in spending much money on manufacturing and many cracks by drying and autogenous shrinkage. Therefore, in this paper, not only prevention of cracks caused by drying and autogenous shrinkage, but improvement of quality and accmplishment of economy by applying F.A(fly ash), S.F(silica fume) and CSA(calcium sulfa aluminate) expansive additives as an inorganic admixtures in W/B 35% are discussed. According to the experimental results, when 5% of CSA Expansive additives and 15:5 (F.A:S.F)are replaced at unit cement content, high performance concrete with both good compensation of drying and autogenous shrinkage at hardened state is accomplished.

In this paper, the properties of cement mortar used recycled aggregate are analyzed and compared with river and crushed sand mortar. Recycled aggregates are made by crushing wasted concrete had various compressive strength, and test items are the properties of fresh mortar, hardened mortar and durability. According to the experimental results, flow, unitweight, strength and durability of cement mortar used recycled aggregates decrease compared with those of river and crushed sand mortar.

Analysis of partially prestressed beams in which cracking under service loads is allowed requires a knowledge of geometric cross section properties such as neutral axis, centroid, area and moment of initia of this cracked transformed section. Especially an exact calculation for the stresses of steel and concrete and the width of crack and the amount of deflection can be obtained with accrurate prediction of neutral of centroidal axis location. In this paper, the procedures for predicting the centroidal axis location of partially cracked prestressed concrete members, using the compatibility of deformation of concrete and steel are formulated and compared with Dilger`s computed results. And also the computed results according to this paper are compared with Branson`s experimental results.

An iterative numerical computational algorithm is presented to design a plate of shell element subjected to membrane and flexural forces. Based on equilibrium consideration, equations for capacities of top and bottom reinforcements in two orthogonal directions have been derived. The amount of reinforcement is determined locally, i. e., for each sampling point, from the equilibrium between applied and internal forces. One case of design is performed for a hyperbolic paraboloid saddle shell (originally used by Lin and Scordelis) to check the design strength against a consistent design load, therefore, to verify the adequacy of design practice for reinforced concrete shells. Based on nonlinear analyses performed, the analytically calculated ultimate load exceeded the design ultimate load from 1443% for an analysis with relatively low to high tension stiffening,
${\gamma}$ =5~20 cases. For these cases, the design method gives a lower bound on the ultimate load with respect to Lower bound theorem. This shows the adequacy of the current practice at least for this saddle shell case studied. To generalize the conclusion many more designsanalyses are performed with different shell configurations. 
This paper provides accurate flexural vibration solutions for thick (Mindlin) sectorial plates. A Ritz method is employed which incorporates a complete set of admissible algebraictrigonometric polynomials in conjunction with an admissible set of Mindlin “corner functions". These corner functions model the singular vibratory moments and shear forces, which simultaneously exist at the vertex of corner angle exceeding 180
$^{\circ}$ . The first set guarantees convergence to the exact frequencies as sufficient terms are taken. The second set represents the corner singularities, and accelerates convergence substantially. Numerical results are obtained for completely free sectorial plates. Accurate frequencies are presented for a wide spectrum of vertex angles (90$^{\circ}$ , 180$^{\circ}$ , 270$^{\circ}$ , 300$^{\circ}$ , 330$^{\circ}$ , 350$^{\circ}$ , 35 5$^{\circ}$ ,and 359$^{\circ}$ )and thickness ratios.tios. 
This paper is intended to investigate the behavior of flexuralshear cracking in reinforced concrete beams without web reinforcement with FEM incorporated into a linear elastic fracture mechanics approach(LEFM). Each crack was propagated progressively by a finite length, then the quantitative reponses were examined. The results show that the horizontal crack was initiated by the bondjnduced shear stress due to horizontal shearing action of the TC force couple after the formation of the critical flexural crack. Also, the horizontal crack is considered to be a major factor of shear failure in slender reinforced concrete beams without web reinforcement.

Numerical studies are performed to investigate the behavior of flat plates under combined inplane and outofplane loads. The numerical model is verified by comparison with experiments for plates simply supported on four edges. Through study on different load combination and loading sequence, the critical load condition that governs the strength of the flat plate is determined. Parametric studies are performed to investigate the buckling coefficient and the effective flexural rigidity so that the moment magnification method is applicable to the flat plates.

The existing design expressions for shear strength of reinforced concrete columns are lacking in consistent seismic design philosophy and very conservative. However, relatively not so many experiments have been conducted to verify the shear resisting mechanisms of columns. The previous researches concentrated on deriving an experimental model from their test results. So, there is a need to approach this problem from the analytical point of view to be balanced with the experimental effort. This paper presents a method of modeling reinforced concrete columns under seismic shear loading. Lower bound solutions are obtained by using an analogous truss model and concrete arch actions. This model agrees with the precedented test results by some margins.

Softening os the name used for decreasing bending moment at advanced flexural deformation. To accommodate softening deformation in analysis, it is assumed that a hinge has finite length. The softening analysis of R/C frames relies on the primary assumption that softening occurs over a finite hinge length and that the momentcurvature relationship for any section may be closely described by a trilinear approximation. A stiffness matrix for elastic element with softening regions are derived and the stiffness matrix allows extension of the capability of an existing computer program for elasticplastic analysis to the softening situation. The effect of softening on the collapse load of R/C frame is evaluated.

The GlassFiber Reinforced EpoxyPanel(GFREP) is a composite material developed for repairing and strengthening of RC structures. The objective of this study is to verify the applicability of finite element modeling technique to analyze behaviors of RC beams strengthened by the GFREP. In this study, the basic material properties obtained by experiments on the GFREP and the reinforced concrete constitutive models were considered and the comparison between analyses and experiments of RC beam specimens strengthened by the GFREP was made. Although analysis method in this paper was reasonably good, the necessities which can consider the effect of plateend shear and plate separation were recognized.

In this paper, finite element with embedded discontinuous line is introduced in order to avoid the difficulties of adding new nodal points along with crack growth in discrete crack model. With the discontinuous element using discontinuous shape function, stiffness matrix of finite element is derived and dual mapping technique for numerical integration is employed. Using the finite element program made with employed algorithms, algorithm is verified and fracture analysis of simple concrete beam is performed.

This paper presents the results from a combination of strutandtie model and analytical study that investigated the ultimate strength of wall system with frame supports. Strutandtie models show reasonable force flows and upper bound solution is compared to the results from FEM analysis. The results shows that two main parameters  transfer girder depth and column width  yield good estimation of the ultimate strength of the system. Vertical and horizontal reinforcements of the transfer girder add few strength to the whole system. The proposed design strength formula shows good agreement with the results from FEM analysis.

A rational method for prediction of longterm deflections of reinforced concrete beams under sustained loads was proposed. Strain and stress distributions of uncracked and fully cracked sections after creep and shrinkage were determined from the requirements of strain compatibility and force equilibrium of a section, and then longterm deflections were calculated from the section analysis results. In fully cracked section analysis, noncoincidence of the neutral axis of strain and the neutral axis of stress after creep and shrinkage was taken into account. The accuracy of the proposed method was verified by comparison with several experimental measurements of beam deflections. The proposed approximate procedure gave the better predictions than the existing approximate methods. At the same time, the proposed method also retained simplicity of the calculation, since maximum longterm deflection could be obtained without tedious integration of the curvatures.

The objective of this paper is to develop a consistent algorithm for the finite element analysis for behavior of concrete under cyclic loading using viscoplasticdamage model. For modeling the behavior of concrete under cyclic loading, consistent algorithms of ratedependent viscoplasticdamage are employed with a WillamWarnke 5parameter failure criterion which can consider the softening behavior of concrete and consistent tangent moduli are derived. Using finite element program implemented with the developed algorithms, the algorithms are verified and the behaviors of concrete under cylic loading are simulated and compared with experimental data.

In this paper, the structural behavior of R.C. multilayered floor structure including foam concrete layer is numerically analyzed. For the analysis, 3D interface element has been implemented to finite element analysis program to consider the interfacial behavior of multilayered floor structure which consists of rubber layer, foam concrete layer and mortar layer on RC slab. Based on analysis results on multilayered structure, its structural behavior is analyzed according to geometrical and material properties of foam concrete. Optimum material property of each layer of the floor structure is proposed to get optimum multilayered concrete structure.

Elastomeric bearing is used as one of the most useful way for isolation structures, because the horizontal stiffness is much lower than the vertical stiffness. In the design criteria of Elastomeric bearing, the stability of the bearings is evaluated by shear strain due to compression, lateral displacement, and rotation. The question how soft rubber can sustain heavy structure is now able to be solved by Ultimate capacity test of Laminated Elastomeric Bearings, which results 1,200kg/
$\textrm{cm}^2$ of the max. compressive stress and this shows what a sufficient safety factor Elastomeric bearing has ! 
This paper describes the possibility to reuse concrete waste produced by demolition of reinforced concrete structures as aggregate for concrete from the viewpoint of strength. Concrete rubble obtained from the demolished buildings at Taejon were crushing machine to reuse as coarse aggregate. The strength properties, such as compressive strength, splitting tensile strength, bending strength and shear strength, of recycled and normal concrete were examined and compared experimentally when water cement ratio was varied. From the results of this study, it was thought that in case of nonwashed aggregate concrete, strength properties of recycled coarse aggregate is similar to that of normal concrete, In W/C 55%~45%, stressstrain curve of recycled concrete shows more stable than that of normal concrete, while in W/C 35%, it shows brittle behavior.

This paper describes an experimental investigation on the effect of concrete strength on tension stiffening behavior. Total ten direct tension specimens were tested with concrete compressive strength range up to 900kg/
$\textrm{cm}^2$ . From the experimental program, it was observed that higher strength concrete specimens provides smaller crack spacings and less stiffening effect. 
This paper is an experimental study on the flexural strength and ductility capacity of reinforced high performance concrete beams with the concrete which has compressive strength of 600~700kg/
$\textrm{cm}^2$ , slump value of 20~25cm and slumpflow value of 60~70cm. Total 8 beams with different tensile reinforcement ratio and pattern of loading were tested. Form the results of reinforced high performance concrete beams, the equivalent stress block parameters proposed by MacGregor et al. or New Zealand code are recommended to use. Also, an extreme fiber concrete compressive strain of reinforced high performance concrete beams are distributed 0.0033~0.0048. In reinforced high performance concrete beams, reinforcement ratio in order to insure curvature ductility index 2 and 4 propose by ACI code should be less than those of reinforced normal strength concrete beams. 
An experimental investigation was conducted to examine the behavior of high strength R/C columns subjected to reversed cyclic and axial loads and to find the relationship between amounts of lateral reinforcement and axial loads ratios. The test parameters of column specimens were the compressive strength of concrete(
$f`_c$ =250, 320, 460,$517kg/\textrm{cm}^2), $ the yield strength of longitudinal steel($f_y$ =3700,$5254kg/\textrm{cm}^2), $ axial load ratio(0.3, 0.5, 0.6$f`_cA_g$ ). The results indicated that axial load can significantly affect and alter the behavior of HS R/C column under inelastic cyclic loadings. Also we found that the relationship between amounts of lateral reinforcement and axial load ratios was$\rho$ =(0.37η+0.15)f`/f. 
In Half Precast Concrete Method, such as composite slab and composite wall, Interface between half PC plate and castinplace concrete is occurred. And this interface endure lastly inplane shear which is occurred by external force. Therefore, test was executed to study inplane shear strength of interface between half PC plate and castinplace concrete. In this test, Experimental parameters are finishing condition of the interface, cohesion of concrete, existence and nonexistence of rebar truss, and angle and direction of lattice of rebar truss. Comparing and analyzing experimental results, conclusions are obtained as follows. (1) Inplane shear strength of wide interface in composite plate is more affected by the roughness of interface than rebar truss. And cohesion of concrete contribute to increasing inplane shear strength. Therefore it seems that the interface should be roughen and kept clean to improve inplane shear strength. (2) It seems that shear friction equation in ACI code can be sagely available for design of inplane shear of composite plate.

The shear behavior and reinforcement effects of simply supported reinforced concrete deep beams with web opening subject to concentrated loads have been scrutinized experimentally to verify the effects of structural parameters such as size, location and reinforcements of web opening. A total of 14 specimens were tested at the laboratory under twopoint top loading. The shear span ratio was taken constantly 0.8, and various types of reinforcements based on truss models were adopted. In the tests, the effects of loction, reinforcements of web openings on the shear behavior, and crack initiation and propagation have been carefully checked and analyzed.

This paper reports on tests of reinforced concrete shear walls for walltype apartment structure under axial loads and the cyclic reversal of lateral loads with different confinement of the boundary elements. Confinement of the extreme element by Ustirrups and tie hooks seems to be as effective as closed stirrups. The shear strength capacity seems not to be increased by the confinement but deformation capacity improved.

To find out an adequate failure criterion in twodimensional linear elastic crack problems, finite element programs, SED, which determine stress intensity factors
$K_I, K_{II}$ , crack angle and peak load by the minimum strain energy density failure criterion were developed. In this program, the conventional quadratic isoparametric elements were used in all regions except the crack tip zone where triangular singular elements with 6 nodes were used. The results of SED were compared with the results of those which followed by the maximum circumferential tensile stress criteria and those by the maximum energy release rate criteria and those by Jenq and Shah`s experiments of the same geometry and material properties. The maximum energy release rate criteria were better close to those of the Jenq and Shah`s experiments than the maximum circumferential tensile stress criteria and the minimum strain energy density criteria. 
Nowadays, the pushover analysis technique is becoming a very useful tool for the prediction of inelastic behavior of structures in the seismic evaluation of existing buildings in the worldwide. However, the reliability of this analysis method has not been fully checked by the test results. The objective of this study is to verify the correlation between the experimental and analytical response of a highrise nonseismic reinforced concrete frame using DRAIN2DX program and the test results performed previously. This study concludes that the overall responses such as storyshear versus storydrift can be predicted with quite high reliability while the local deformations such as plastic rotations in the ends of critical members can not be described reasonably.

The objective of this research is to observe the actual response of lowrise nonseismic momentresisting infilled reinforced concrete frame subjected to varied levels of earthquake ground motions. First of all, the reduction scale for the model was determined as 1 : 5 considering the capacity of the shaking table to be used. This model was, then, subjected to the shaking table motions simulating Taft N21E component earthquake ground motions, whose peak ground accelerations(PGA`s) were modified to 0.12g, 0.2g, 0.3g, and 0.4g. The global behavior and failure mode were observed. The lateral accelerations and displacements at each story and local deformations at the critical portions of structure were measured. Before and after each earthquake simulation test, free vibration tests were performed to find the changes in the natural period of the model.

The smallscale models have been utilized for the prediction of inelastic behavior of reinforced concrete structures for a long time. The parameters that affect the similitude between the model and the prototype are various. Among them, the effect of bond between the model reinforcement and the model concrete is one of the most important factors. The study reported herein is addressed to verifying this similitude in bond behavior. Another topic is the similitude in shear. The selected scales are 1/1, 1/5, 1/10 and 1/12. Two prototype specimens and three models were tested in addition to the associated material tests. The test results are compared from the viewpoint of similitude.

Since the mid of the 20th century in the world, it has been observed that the number of minor or moderate earthquake motions tend to be increased year by year. Owing to the topographical condition, moreover, large numbers of skew bridges have been constructed for the requirements of more than DB18 ton bridge in Korea. It has been also observed from foreign countries that lots of superstructures collapse in bridge were occurred in previous earthquakes, inclusive of 1995 Kobe earthquake. This is caused by a relative displacement between the upper and lower structure of bridge by the earthquake and the rotation with respect to the vertical axis of skew bridges, which were subjected to and earthquake motion. In this study, the probabilistic analysis of unseating failure of skew bridges under scenario earthquake has been carried out by evaluating the longitudinal displacement of skew bridges.

The object of this thesis is an analytical study on shear deformation of reinforced concrete members using monte carlo method. Using the established experimental data that has been presented in various documents the stressstrain relationships curves of reinforced concrete (300kgf/
$\textrm{cm}^2$ ~400kgf/$\textrm{cm}^2$ ) models are proposed. Finally, the theoretical values calculated using the analytical method developed in this study have been investigated in comparison with the experimental ones which were carried out earlier in order to prove its validity. From the results it has been shown that theoretical values agree quite well with experimental ones, and it could be pointed out that the presented analytical method is widely acceptable for the practical analysis of shear displacement of reinforced concrete members. 
An objective of this study is to experimentally investigate the strength and ductility of reinforced concrete columns under uniaxial load and several test variables. To do this, we have conducted tests on twelve 20
$\times$ 20$\times$ 60cm specimens with 8 and 12 longitudinal steel bars subjected to monotonic uniaxial compression. The main variables considered in this test are the configuration of ties, the strength of concrete, The results indicate that the strength and the ductility of reinforced concrete columns have been influenced on the configuration of ties, the strength of concrete. 
This paper is a part of a research plan aimed at the verification of basic design rules of highstrength concrete columns. A total of 19 slender column specimens were tested to measure secondary moment and stiffness of eccentrically loaded reinforced concrete tied columns. Main variables included in this test program were concrete compressive strength, steel amount, eccentricity, and slenderness ratio. The concrete compressive strength varied from 356kg/
$\textrm{cm}^2$ to 951kg/$\textrm{cm}^2$ , the longitudinal steel ratios were between 1.13% and 5.51%, and slenderness ratios were 40 and 61. Calculated moment magnification factors and column stiffness based on design codes are higher than the test results for high axial load under small eccentricity, for higher slenderness ratio, for lower longitudinal steel ratio, and for highstrength concrete. The moment magnification method of the current design codes may provide a very conservative design for highstrength concrete slender column. 
Recent trends in the construction of building frame feature the increase use of composite steel concrete members functioning together in what terms of mixed structural systems. One of such systems, RCS(reinforced concrete column and steel beam) system, is known to make use of type of member in the most efficient manner to maximize the structural and economic benifits. Based on the results, joint behavior and design were described in terms of two primary modes of failure ; joint panel shear and vertical bearing. In test specimen, joint deformation is observed at internal region greater than at external region.

The experimental study for the interior beamcolumn joint for high strength conccrete using Belite cement is presented. Test parameters are compressive strength, flexual strength ratio and joint shear stresslevel. The results from cyclic loading tests show different behaviors from the various parameters. Also, The different behaviors on beamcolumn joint can be achived by the different concrete strength.

Experimental studies are investigated for RC column retrofitting under cyclic load. Design considerations are jacketing of steel plate of carbon fiber with epoxy bonding, use of unbonded plate, additional concrete grouting, ratio of additional longitudinal steel reinforcement and longitudinal configuration of additional ties. Investigated results are 1) jacketing and additional reinforcements are effective for strengthening, 2) use of additional grouting is less effective with respect to increased section. Future studies are needed to evaluate the requirements about additional reinforcements for member stress level, 3) bond between original and additional grout concrete.

The composite systems, consisting of R/C ColumnsSteel Beams, are reasonable structures because of their constructional and economical advantages, workability and so on. But, it is difficult to apply the composite systems to actual design due to material dissimilarity and complicate stress flow in the connection. This study aims to propose the hybrid beamcolumn connection system with structural tee and through experimental research make clear the shear and moment resistance capacity and stress transfer mechanism.