• Title, Summary, Keyword: $N_2$-fixation

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Evaluation of Nitrogen Fixation between Supernodulating Soybean Mutants and their Wild-Types Using $^{15}N$ in Field Conditions

  • Youn, Jong-Tag;Van, Kyu-Jung;Ryu, Yong-Hwan;Shimada, Shinji;Lee, Choon-Ki;Kim, Sun-Lim;Seo, Sea-Jung;Lee, Suk-Ha
    • Journal of Crop Science and Biotechnology
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    • v.11 no.1
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    • pp.31-38
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    • 2008
  • Improvement of $N_2$ fixation by symbiotic rhizobia is considered an effective means for enhancing its productivity without high input of nitrogen(N) fertilizer. Several methods to improve $N_2$ fixation have been proposed including the use of supernodulating mutants. The objective of this research was to identify the varietal difference in N and $N_2$-fixation ability among the soybean supernodulating mutants, SS2-2 and Sakukei 4, with different nodulation abilities using $^{15}N$ in field conditions in both Korea and Japan. The dry weight(DW) was higher in wild-type soybeans. The distribution rate of DW in each plant part was high in seeds of supernoduating and wild-type soybeans but high in stems and leaves of non-nodulating mutants. Although the supernodulating mutants had a low DW rate at maturity, they showed a similar $N_2$ fixation ability compared with wild-type. Supernodulating mutant plants mainly obtained N from $N_2$ fixation, while soil N was the main resource for obtaining N in non-nodulating mutants. The percentage of N derived from atmospheric dinitrogen(Ndfa) was higher in supernodulating mutants than in wild-type and relatively high in seeds between plant parts at maturity. In particular, supernodulating mutants showed higher N content in roots than those of wild-type and non-nodulating mutants. It was considered that supernodulating mutants have the advantage of saving nitrate in soil and being beneficial for N absorption of subsequent crops due to their conserving more N in the field and releasing considerable amounts of N from roots and leaves fallen to the soil.

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Straight-Forward versus Bicortical Fixation Penetrating Endplate in Lumbosacral Fixation-A Biomechanical Study

  • Karakasli, Ahmet;Acar, Nihat;Uzun, Bora
    • Journal of Korean Neurosurgical Society
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    • v.61 no.2
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    • pp.180-185
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    • 2018
  • Objective : Many lumbosacral fixation techniques have been described to offer a more screw-bone purchase. The forward anatomical fixation parallel to the endplate is still the most preferred method. Literature revealed little knowledge regarding the mechanical stability of lumbosacral trans-endplate fixation compared to the traditional trans-pedicular screw fixation method. The aim of this study is to assess the pull-out strength of lumbosacral screws penetrating the end plate and comparing it to the conventional trans-pedicular screw insertion method. Methods : Eight lumbar and eight sacral vertebrae, with average age 69.4 years, Left pedicles of the 5th lumbar vertebrae were used for trans-endplate screw fixation, group 1A, right pedicles were used for anatomical trans-pedicular screw fixation, group 1B. In the sacral vertebrae, the right side S1 pedicles were used for trans-endplate fixation, group 2A, left side pedicles were used for anatomical trans-pedicular screw fixation, group 2B. The biomechanical tests were performed using the axial compression testing machine. All tests were applied using 2 mm/min traction speed. Results : The average pull-out strength values of groups 1A and 1B were $403.78{\pm}11.71N$ and $306.26{\pm}17.55N$, respectively. A statistical significance was detected with p=0.012. The average pull-out strength values of groups 2A and 2B were $388.73{\pm}17.03N$ and $299.84{\pm}17.52N$, respectively. A statistical significance was detected with p=0.012. Conclusion : The trans-endplate lumbosacral fixation method is a trustable fixation method with a stronger screw-bone purchase and offer a good alternative for surgeons specially in patients with osteoporosis.

$N_2\;Fixation\;and\;H_2$ Production by a Phototrophic Bacterium, Chromatium sp. (광합성세균 Chromatium sp.의 질소고정과 수소생산)

  • ;Michiro Matsuyama
    • Journal of Aquaculture
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    • v.10 no.1
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    • pp.69-76
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    • 1997
  • Chromatium sp., densely populated on the bacterial plate of Lake Kaiike throughout the seasons, possibly fix N2 and concurrently produce H2 N2 Fixation and H2 production by Chromatium sp. were performed under photoautotrophic growth condition, and of which rates were much higher and showed expontial growth phase. Bacterial plater samples from Lake Kaiike collected on July 27, 1994 were used to know the effect of the light or H2S on N2 fixation and H2 productin by the bacteria. At low light intensity (250 lux), low rates of N2 fixation and H2 production were detected after 18 hours. However, high rates of the production were observed under the condition of high light intensity (1000 lux). On the other hand, a very low rate of N2 fixation was observed without an addition of H2S, while the bacterial rapilly increased N2 fixation and H2 production after adding H2S and the highest rate was observed in case of adding 20mg H2S-S/$m\ell$ to the bacterial plates.

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Role of Diazotrophic Bacteria in Biological Nitrogen Fixation and Plant Growth Improvement

  • Shin, Wansik;Islam, Rashedul;Benson, Abitha;Joe, Manoharan Melvin;Kim, Kiyoon;Gopal, Selvakumar;Samaddar, Sandipan;Banerjee, Somak;Sa, Tongmin
    • Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer
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    • v.49 no.1
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    • pp.17-29
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    • 2016
  • Though there is an abundant supply of nitrogen in the atmosphere, it cannot be used directly by the biological systems since it has to be combined with the element hydrogen before their incorporation. This process of nitrogen fixation ($N_2$-fixation) may be accomplished either chemically or biologically. Between the two elements, biological nitrogen fixation (BNF) is a microbiological process that converts atmospheric di-nitrogen ($N_2$) into plant-usable form. In this review, the genetics and mechanism of nitrogen fixation including genes responsible for it, their types and role in BNF are discussed in detail. Nitrogen fixation in the different agricultural systems using different methods is discussed to understand the actual rather than the potential $N_2$-fixation procedure. The mechanism by which the diazotrophic bacteria improve plant growth apart from nitrogen fixation such as inhibition of plant ethylene synthesis, improvement of nutrient uptake, stress tolerance enhancement, solubilization of inorganic phosphate and mineralization of organic phosphate is also discussed. Role of diazotrophic bacteria in the enhancement of nitrogen fixation is also dealt with suitable examples. This mini review attempts to address the importance of diazotrophic bacteria in nitrogen fixation and plant growth improvement.

Comparison of Primary Stability of Different Femoral Fixation Techniques in Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction (전 십자 인대 재건술에서 대퇴골측 고정 방법의 초기 안정성의 비교)

  • Song, Eun-Kyoo;Lee, Keun-Bae;Lee, Moon
    • Journal of the Korean Arthroscopy Society
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    • v.2 no.1
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    • pp.85-92
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    • 1998
  • Various methods for fixation of graft have been widely used for reconstruction of anterior cruciate ligament. However, the biomechanical strength of each fixation techniques are not fully understood. The purpose of this study is to compare the pull out strength of different fixation techniques which is probably the most important factor for the success at the initial stage of healing. Biomechanical test was carried out to measure and compare the pull out tensile strength of five different fixation techniques in 35 pig(Yorkshire) knees. ANOVA and Duncan multiple comparison test was applied for statistical analysis. In the two fixation techniques with bone patellar tendon bone graft, the mean maximum tensile strength was $1333.4{\pm}148.5N$ with titanium interference screw, while it was $1310.1{\pm}168.9N$ with biodegradable interference screw. The failure mode were pulled out of bone plugs from the femoral tunnel in majority cases. In the fixations with hamstring tendon, the mean maximum tensile strength were $1405.9{\pm}135.1N$ with SemiFix screw, $820.3{\pm}104.5N$ with biodegradable interference screw, and $682.1{\pm}54.2N$ with Endobutton. The mode of failure was variable in each technique. The tendon was pulled out from the tunnel in biodegradable interference screw fixation, the screw was bent in the SemiFix system, and the polyester tape were ruptured or the buttons were pulled into tunnel in Endobutton fixation. The mean maximum tensile strength of two interference screws with bone patellar tendon bone was statistically comparable to that of SemiFix with hamstring tendon. However biodegradable interference screw and Endobutton with hamstring tendon showed weaker maximum tensile strength than above three fixation techniques (P<0.05).

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Studies on the fluctuation of aerobic free-living nitrogen fixation bacteria in soil beneath the plant covers (식피별 비공생성 호기성 질소고정세균의 변동에 관하여)

  • 이태우;심재국
    • Korean Journal of Microbiology
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    • v.21 no.2
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    • pp.71-78
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    • 1983
  • The number of aerobic free-living nitrogen fixation bacteria and factors in soil at different stands covered with Pinus rigida, Quercus acutissima and Zoysia japonica in Cheongju area were investigated from Feb. to Sept 1981. 1. The numbers of $N_2-fixation$ bacteria, according to the seasonal changes, increased gradually from winter to spring and summer. But the growth pattern revealed some differences in accordance with plant cover stands : the numbers increased abruptly in May at Pinus, May-June at Quercus and Apr. May at Zoysia stand. The pick of numbers represented in Aug. Sept, at Pinus, Jul-Aug. at Quercus and May-Jun. at Zoysia stand, respectively. 2. The interrelationship between the monthly changes of enviotnmental factors and numbers of $N_2-fixation$ bacteria at different stands, mainly depends upon the soil temperature than other soil factors (r=0.71-0.84). The numbers of $N_2-fixation$ bacteria may increase 5-7 times according to increase $10^{\circ}C$ of soil temperature, and optimal range was $20{\sim}30^{\circ}C$ for growth. Equation of the interrelation between soil temperature and numbers could be stated as follows : log y=ax+b. 3. In the case of high soil temperature, the bacterial numbers presented high level in drought periods. Therefore, the $N_2-fixation$ bacterial species in these soil seem to consist of resistant to desication. 4. The influence of soil organic matter for growth of $N_2-fixation$ bacteria indicated low conrelation. The reason may seen the content of organic matter in these soil existed abundantly above the quantities of limitation for growth. 5. In artifical gradients, the $N_2-fixation$ bacteria were predominated at $20{\sim}30^{\circ}C$ same as natural condition, pH7-8, and 20-30% of soil water contents. 6. The vertical distribution of bacteria marked decreasing trends from surface to lower layers, and the decreasing degree was shown well in Zoysia, Quercus and Pinus stand in order. But in the trees, the numbers increased at 30cm layer estimated the region of root than 20cm layer. 7. Both catalase megative and positive group of $N_2-fixation$ bacteria in soil increased according to the rise of the soil temperature. Catalase positive group was revealed as dominant group in winter, and catalase negative group revealed in summer. The change of dominant pattern was shown during Feb. to Apr.

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Evaluation of a Double-Pigtail Ureteral Stent Fixation in Cats with Complete Ureteral Obstruction

  • Shin, Kyoung-in;Jeong, Soon-wuk
    • Journal of Veterinary Clinics
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    • v.37 no.3
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    • pp.115-122
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    • 2020
  • The aim of this study was to evaluate double-pigtail ureteral stent fixation in cats. Medical records of 19 cats (23 ureters) with complete ureteral obstruction that double-pigtail ureteral stent placement were carried out were retrospectively reviewed. The cats were randomly classified into two groups; 13 cats (16 ureters) with double-pigtail ureteral stent fixed to urinary bladder (SF group) and 6 cats (7 ureters) with not fixed to urinary bladder (SNF group). The average age and weight of the cats was 7.4 years and 3.73 kg, respectively. Postoperative complications included chronic renal failure (n = 11), lower urinary track diseases (cystitis, hematuria, pollakiuria) (n = 7), stent migration (n = 6), anemia (n = 5), ascites (n = 2), hyperthermia (n = 1), enteritis (n = 1), oliguria (n = 1), hypotension (n = 1), ureteritis (n = 1), and pyelonephritis (n = 1). Stent migration did not occur in the 16 ureters of the cats in SF group but did occur in 4 out of 7 ureters of the cats in SNF group. The prevention of stent migration by stent fixation was significant (P = 0.04). Among the 13 cats in SF group, only 2 cats developed lower urinary track diseases, while 4 of the 6 cats in SNF group showed symptoms of lower urinary track disease. Thus, the cats that underwent double-pigtail ureteral stent fixation to the urinary bladder developed significantly fewer lower urinary diseases (P = 0.046). In conclusion, double-pigtail ureteral stent fixation to the urinary bladder for treatment of complete ureteral obstruction in cats can effectively prevent stent migration, which is common complication of stent placement.

Effects of legume mixture on nitrogen fixation and transfer to grasses in spring paddy field

  • Lee, H.
    • Korean Journal of Organic Agriculture
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    • v.19 no.spc
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    • pp.161-164
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    • 2011
  • Nitrogen fixation by legumes can be valuable sources for organic farming. This study was to investigate the effect of different legume mixtures on nitrogen fixation and transfer to grasses on spring paddy field. Three different mixtures were used (rye+hairy vetch, Italian ryegrass+crimson clover, oat+pea) in a randomized complete block design with three replications and sowed in pots with different sowing rate (5:5 rye:hairy vetch,7:3=Italian:crimson, 6:4=oat:pea) on early March. $(^{15}NH_4)SO_4$ solution at. 99.8 atom%$^{15}N$ was applied to the each pot at the rate of 2kg N $ha^{-1}$ on $16^{th}$ April. Forage were harvested at ground level in heading stage and separated into legume and grass. Total N content and $^{15}N$ value were determined using a continuous flow stable isotope ratio mass spectrometry. DM yield of rye+vetch, Italian+crimson and oat+pea were 6,607, 3,213 and 4,312kg/ha, respectively. Proportion of N from fixation was 0.73(rye+vetch), 0.42(Italian+crimson) and 0.93(oat+pea). The percentages of N transfer from legume to grass were from 61% to 24% in different method by treatments and -35% to 21% in isotope dilution method.

Biomechanical Comparison Study of Three Fixation Methods for Proximal Chevron Osteotomy of the First Metatarsal in Hallux Valgus

  • Kim, Jin Su;Cho, Hun Ki;Young, Ki Won;Kim, Ji Soo;Lee, Kyung Tai
    • Clinics in Orthopedic Surgery
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    • v.9 no.4
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    • pp.514-520
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    • 2017
  • Background: Fixation of proximal chevron metatarsal osteotomy has been accomplished using K-wires traditionally and with a locking plate recently. However, both methods have many disadvantages. Hence, we developed an intramedullary fixation technique using headless cannulated screws and conducted a biomechanical study to evaluate the superiority of the technique to Kwire and locking plate fixations. Methods: Proximal chevron metatarsal osteotomy was performed on 30 synthetic metatarsal models using three fixation techniques. Specimens in group I were fixated with K-wires ($1.6mm{\times}2$) and in group II with headless cannulated screws ($3.0mm{\times}2$) distally through the intramedullary canal. Specimens in group III were fixated with a locking X-shaped plate (1.3-mm thick) and screws ($2.5mm{\times}4$). Eight metatarsal specimens were selected from each group for walking fatigue test. Bending stiffness and dorsal angulation were measured by 1,000 repetitions of a cantilever bending protocol in a plantar to dorsal direction. The remaining two samples from each group were subjected to 5 mm per minute axial loading to assess the maximal loading tolerance. Results: All samples in group I failed walking fatigue test while group II and group III tolerated the walking fatigue test. Group II showed greater resistance to bending force and smaller dorsal angulation than group III (p = 0.001). On the axial loading test, group I and group II demonstrated superior maximum tolerance to group III (54.8 N vs. 47.2 N vs. 28.3 N). Conclusions: Authors have demonstrated proximal chevron metatarsal osteotomy with intramedullary screw fixation provides superior biomechanical stability to locking plate and K-wire fixations. The new technique using intramedullary screw fixation can offer robust fixation and may lead to better outcomes in surgical treatment of hallux valgus.

Studies on Biological Nitrogen Fixation -III. Influences of organic matter sources, kinds and amount of fertilizer nitrogen on the changes of biological N2-fixation and kjeldahl nitrogen under dark and light condition in submerged paddy soil (생물학적(生物學的) 질소고정(窒素固定)에 관(關)한 연구(硏究) -III. 담수토양(湛水土壤)에서 유기물종류(有機物種類), 질소비종(窒素肥種)과 시비량(施肥量)을 달리했을때 광합성(光合成) 및 타양성질소고정력(他養性窒素固定力)에 미치는 영향(影響))

  • Lee, Sang-Kyu;Lee, Myeong-Gu
    • Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer
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    • v.20 no.3
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    • pp.261-268
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    • 1987
  • A green house experiment was conducted to find out the differences in the amount of biologically fixed nitrogen and kjeldahl nitrogen on the different soil texture, kinds and amounts of fertilizer nitrogen under light (photosynthetic $N_2$-fixation) and dark (heterotrophic $N_2$-fixation) condition in submerged paddy soil. The reults obtained were summarized as follows; 1. The amount of biologically fixed nitrogen per mg carbon from different organic matter was obtained as 0.13 mg in glucose, 0.09 mg in rice straw, and 0.07 mg in refused mushroom compost and barley straw under 60 days of incubation. 2. Nitrogen fixing activities were decreased with increase of fertilizer nitrogen and those tendency was pronounced more in sandy soil with application of urea than that of ammonium sulfate. 3. The application of ammonium sulfate in sandy soil under light condition was increased the photosynthetic $N_2$-fixation and the applied urea was remarkably reduced the heterotrophic $N_2$-fixation in sandy soil. The proportion of biologically fixed total nitrogen after experiment in sandy soil was obtained as 25% for dark(heterotrophic $N_2$-fixation) and 75% for light (photosynthetic $N_2$-fixation) condition. On the other hand, very similar biological $N_2$-fixing tendency was obtained between kinds of nitrogen fertilizer and two light condition in clayey soil. 4. The kjeldahl nitrogen was remarkably decreased after experiment under dark condition with application of urea than that of light condition with ammonium sulfate, and no remarkable decreasing tendency was obtained in clayey soil between two kinds of fertilizer nitrogen. 5. The high significant positive correlationship was obtained between calculated biological nitrogen fixation by acetylene reducing activity and kjeldahl nitrogen after experiment under light (y=0.8488X-5.9632, $r=0.9928^{**}$, n=21) and dark (y=0.8795X-7.1056, $r=0.9782^{**}$, n=21) condition. In this experiment condition, conversion factors of 6:1 was obtained from biological nitrogen fixation to soil nitrogen.

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