• Title, Summary, Keyword: $TiO_2$

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Coagulase Thping and Antibiotic Resistance of Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) Isolated form Patients in Pusan (부산지역 환자로부터 분리된 Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus(MRSA)의 응고효소형 및 항균제 내성에 관한 연구)

  • 류지한;이훈구
    • Korean Journal of Microbiology
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    • v.36 no.3
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    • pp.216-220
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    • 2000
  • Eighty-eight strain3 o~methicillin resistant Stopllylococcus awecis were Isolated from pus (64.7%); spuhm (26.2%), blood, fluid, andurine of 83 patients at Dong-A Hospital in P~~san to invesligate theil-coagulase typ- Ing, and multi-drug resistaut ppattems. The presence of niec A gene confe~~ing melhicillin resistance was tested by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) with uwo mec A gene specific primers using purified clromosonlal DNA as templates. DNA fragments of expected size wel-e detected frorn 86 strains, but not from two strains. !i coagulase typmg, the 86 isolates were assigned to 5 coagulase lypes, I, 11, lll. 1V, VI, VII, VIlI, but there was no isolate helong lo type V. The most abundant coagulase type was type TI(50 %), lollowed by type IV Rest ofthe coagulase types were ininor; ranging fmm 4.5 to 12.5 '% Most of the type I1 ~netlucillin resistant Stapl\ulcorneryiococcus nwem (MRSA) strams were isolated from the generd sulzely ward, but major strains of type IV were Isolated from the otorhinolq~ngology of the hospital's outpatient clinic center. All of the 88 st~nins were sensitive to vancomycin and teicoplanin, but 71 (81%) strains showed multi-drug resitant to penicillin, cephalotl~n, eiythroinycin, gentan~ycin, imipenem, clindamycin, ciprofloxacin and ooxacillin. Yo relationship was found between the antibiotic resistance pattems aud the coagulase typing patterns.

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An 1 year prospective comparative study evaluating the effect of microthread on the maintenance of marginal bone level (임프란트 미세나사선이 주위골 수준변화에 미치는 영향에 대한 1년간의 전향적 비교 연구)

  • Shin, Dong-Hwan;Cho, Kyoo-Sung;Park, Kwang-Ho;Moon, Ik-Sang
    • Journal of Periodontal and Implant Science
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    • v.33 no.3
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    • pp.349-358
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    • 2003
  • The success of dental implant therapy relies mainly upon the presence and maintenance of bone adjacent to implant. An 1-year prospective study was performed, upon the patients who were diagnosed as having chronic adult periodontitis, and had been treated with dental implant. The purpose of this study was to measure the radiographic bone level changes proximal to Astra Tech Single Tooth Implants (ATST, Astra Tech AB, $M{\"{o}}lndal$, Sweden) with microthread and Astra Tech TiOblast Implant (ATTB) without microthread supporting fixed partial prosthesis. Measurements were used to determine mean marginal bone loss during the first year of loading, 17 subjects with its partial prosthesis supported by 37 implants were followed up for an 1-year period. The marginal bone loss of implants was positively correlated with the retention factor, microthread($Microthread^{TM}$) in crestal area of ATST. The results were as follows. 1. The mean marginal bone loss of ATST was 0.226${\pm}$0.395mm, while ATTB was 0.440${\pm}$0.360mm. There was a statistically significant difference between ATST and ATTB (p<0.05). 2. The mean bone loss of the upper jaw fixtures was 0.269${\pm}$0.265mm for ATST and 0.529${\pm}$0.417mm for ATTB . There was a statistically significant difference between ATST and ATTB (p<0.05). In the lower jaw the corresponding figures were 0.167${\pm}$0.231mm and 0.313${\pm}$0.214mm, respectively. There was no significant difference between ATST and ATTB (p>0.05). 3. The mean bone loss of ATST was lower than that of ATTB at all sites according to bone quality. There was a statistically significant difference between ATST and ATTB at bone quality type III(p <0.05). In conclusion, the mean bone loss of ATST was smaller than that of ATTB . Therefore, the retention factor of crestal area, microthread ($Microthread^{TM}$) was effective to maintenance of marginal bone level around fixture.

Development of High Performance Curing Agent and Effective Dispersion Method of Nanomaterials (고성능 피막양생제 개발 및 나노물질의 분산방안 평가)

  • Son, Ho-Jung;Yoo, Byung-Hyun;Lee, Dong-Gyu
    • Journal of the Korea Academia-Industrial cooperation Society
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    • v.20 no.12
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    • pp.230-236
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    • 2019
  • Recently, issues related to the quality of concrete have continuously resulted in surface quality problems, such as the exfoliation of concrete surfaces due to the cost reduction of cement and poor quality fine aggregate, scaling of surfaces caused by laitance, and plastic shrinkage cracks. Prompted by social issues, the application of a photo catalyst to road structures is being attempted to solve the environmental problems caused by fine dust and automobile exhaust. In this study, chemical admixtures were developed to improve the surface quality of concrete and to apply and distribute titanium dioxide in nanoscale sizes to provide basic data for the development of a photocatalyst-curing agent. As a result of the experiment, silicon and silane were reviewed as a raw material as a curing agent to develop a high performance curing agent with better film performance than conventional curing agents because they could form a film quickly on a fresh concrete surface. The distributed stability of the ultrasonic disperser showed the best performance through an outdoor test for four weeks to review the dispersion measures for the application of nanomaterials.

NOx Reduction Performance in Cement Mortar with TiO2 Treatment and Mineral Admixture (무기계 혼화재료를 혼입한 모르타르 시편의 광촉매 처리를 고려한 NOx 저감 성능)

  • Yoon, Yong-Sik;Kim, Hyeok-Jung;Park, Jang-Hyun;Kwon, Seung-Jun
    • Journal of the Korean Recycled Construction Resources Institute
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    • v.8 no.4
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    • pp.506-513
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    • 2020
  • In this study, the mechanical properties, absorption, and reduction performance of NOx in the mortar containing mineral admixture like zeolite and active hwangtoh were evaluated. Zeolite and active hwangtoh were used as binder, and zeolite and active hwangtoh were substituted for cement. The substitution ratio of two types of mineral admixtures was considered as 20 and 30% respectively. As a result of evaluating the compressive strength and flexural strength of each mortar specimen, the highest strength in the plain mixture was evaluated. As the substitution ratio of zeolite and active hwangtoh increased, the compressive and flexural strength decreased. In addition, the difference of compressive and flexural strength between active hwangtoh and zeolite mixing was evaluated to be insignificant. To evaluate the absorption rate, the mixture was designed to lower the W/B ratio of the existing mixture and set the substitution ratio of active hwangtoh and zeolite at 25%. The highest absorption ratio in the mortar with zeolite was evaluated, and the difference in absorption ratio between the remaining two mortar mixtures was small. The assessment of reduction performance of NOx considering the application of photocatalyst showed a clearly decreasing reduction behavior, even if they were the same mortar mixture. Zeolite and active hwangtoh also showed a higher NOx reduction than the Plain mixture, because of their porosity properties. In the case of active hwangtoh, the absorption ratio was lower than that of zeolite mixture, but the reduction of NOx performance was better than the result of zeolite mixture.

THE COMPARISON OF DIFFERENT CANAL IRRIGATION METHODS TO PREVENT REACTION PRECIPITATE BETWEEN SODIUM HYPOCHLORITE AND CHLORHEXIDINE (차아염소산나트륨과 클로르헥시딘의 반응침전물 형성방지를 위한 여러 가지 근관세척 방법의 비교)

  • Choi, Moon-Sun;Park, Se-Hee;Cho, Kyung-Mo;Kim, Jin-Woo
    • Restorative Dentistry and Endodontics
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    • v.35 no.2
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    • pp.80-87
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    • 2010
  • The purpose of this study was to compare the different canal irrigation methods to prevent the formation of precipitate between sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) and chlorhexidine (CHX). Extracted 50 human single-rooted teeth were used. The root canals were instrumented using NiTi rotary file (Profile .04/#40) with 2.5% NaOCl and 17% EDTA as irrigants. Teeth were randomly divided into four experimental groups and one control group as follows; Control group: 2.5% NaOCl only, Group 1: 2.5% NaOCl + 2% CHX, Group 2: 2.5% NaOCl + paper points + 2% CHX, Group 3: 2.5% NaOCl + preparation with one large sized-file + 2% CHX, Group 4: 2.5% NaOCl +95% alcohol+ 2% CHX. The teeth were split in bucco-lingual aspect and the specimens were observed using Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscope. The percentages of remaining debris and patent dentinal tubules were determined. Statistical analysis was performed with one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA). Energy Dispersive x-ray Spectroscopy was used for analyzing the occluded materials in dentinal tubule for elementary analysis. There were no significant differences in percentage of remaining debris and patent tubules between all experimental groups at all levels (p > .05). In elementary analysis, the most occluded materials in dentinal tubule were dentin debris. NaOCl/CHX precipitate was detected in one tooth specimen of Group 1. In conclusion, there were no significant precipitate on root canal, but suspected material was detected on Group 1. The irrigation system used in this study could be prevent the precipitate formation.

Determination of Optimized Operational Parameters for Photocatalytic Oxidation Reactors Using Factorial Design (요인분석법을 이용한 광촉매 산화반응조의 최적 운영인자 도출)

  • Hur, Joon-Moo;Cheon, Seung-Yul;Rhee, In-Hyoung;Kim, Jong-Soo
    • Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture
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    • v.23 no.2
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    • pp.85-91
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    • 2004
  • The objective of this study is to determine the optimum conditions of operational parameters using factorial design for phenol degradation in photocatalytic oxidation reactors. Factorial design is widely used to select the dominant factors and their ranges in experiments involving several factors where it is necessary to study the effect of factors on a response. The effects of initial concentration of phenol, intensity of UV light and surface area of catalyst on phenol degradation were investigated. Two levels were considered in this study so that the experiment was a $2^3$ factorial design with three replicates. The experimental results show that an increase in initial concentration of phenol from 5 to 50 mg/L intensity of UV light from 5,000 to $20,000\;{\mu}W/cm^2$, and surface area of catalyst from 740 to $2,105\;cm^2$ enhanced the phenol degradation rate by an average of 1.86, 1.79, and 2.10 mg/L hr, respectively. Interaction effects do not appear to be as large on the phenol degradation rate as the main effects of single factors. The optimum working condition for photocatalytic oxidation reactors, despite the higher three factors the better removal rate, is the highest surface area or catalyst.

Material Properties and Conservation of 『Collection of Yi Chungmugong』 in Manuscript (『이충무공전서』 정고본의 지질분석과 보존처리)

  • Lim, Se-Yeon;Ahn, Ji-Yoon;Yang, Min-Jeong
    • MUNHWAJAE Korean Journal of Cultural Heritage Studies
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    • v.51 no.4
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    • pp.108-119
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    • 2018
  • "The Collection of Yi Chungmugong" manuscript is a hand-written manuscript of the volume 1 consisting of the Collection, published in 1795 and it seems to have completed the contents of the book by correcting the first part of the book before print. The book adopted a form of Seonjangbon(線裝本) of Ochimanjeongbeop(五針眼訂法) and was urgently needed some measures to preserve because it has been much damaged by stains, loss and oxidation due to moisture on the bottom of it. In addition, a scientific investigation was applied to find out the features of the quality of paper and fiber used for the book, which would be reflected in the process of the preservation. The characteristics of paper were measurmented for size(cm), thickness(mm), weight(g), basis weight($g/m^2$), density($g/cm^3$), chain line and laid lines($3{\times}3cm$). The measurement showed that the characteristics of paper used in royal books published in the late Joseon Dynasty. For the paper-fiber of the book, C stain was used and the technique revealed that the book is made of bast fibre of paper mulberry and its binding strings are cotton. SEM-EDS analysis was performed to verify the existence of additives in paper. As a result of the analysis, The crystallized calcium was detected in addition to the main components carbon(C) and oxygen(O). This artifact is the unique final version of "The collection of Yi Chungmugong", which has considerable value in terms of academic research, besides it helps to understand how to print books of Joseon Dynasty. And it also has a very accurate information of when and where the book was made, which primarily could be resources to conserve and restore for other book heritage.

Effects of Different Dietary Energy and Protein Levels on Milk Production in Saanen Dairy Goats in Mid Lactation (에너지 및 단백질 공급 수준에 따른 비유 중기 유산양의 유생산성에 미치는 영향)

  • Park, Joong-Kook;Kim, Jong-Duk;Kim, Ji-Ae;Yoo, Jung-Suk;Bae, Gui-Seck;Kim, Chang-Hyun
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Grassland and Forage Science
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    • v.30 no.1
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    • pp.35-42
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    • 2010
  • The study was conducted to investigate the effect of dietary energy and protein levels on milk production in Saanen (Capra hircus) dairy goats fed the diets with the different ratio of forage and concentrate. Four lactating goats in mid lactation ($57.5{\pm}10.8\;kg$ BW) were used in a $4{\times}4$ Latin square with 21-d periods. Animals were randomly allocated to one of the four groups; 10.59 MJ ME/kg and 11.90% CP (TJ), 10.14 MJ ME/kg and 12.73% CP (T2), 9.45 MJ ME/kg and 15.19% CP (T3), 8.75 MJ ME/kg and 16.60% CP DM (T4). Also ratio of forage to concentrate was 49: 51 (Tl), 59: 41 (T2), 74: 26 (T3) and 90: 10 (T4). Intakes of forage and concentrate were linearly increased (p<0.05) with their increasing energy levels in the diets. No significant differences were found in total dry matter intake and body weight between treatments. Milk yield in T3 was the highest among treatments (p<0.05). Relative to other treatments, T4 significantly (p

Formation of the $CoSi_{2}$ using Co/Zr Bilayer on the Amorphous and the Single Crystalline Si Substrates (단결정과 비정질 Si 기판에서 Co/Zr 이중층을 이용한 $CoSi_{2}$ 형성)

  • Kim, Dong-Wook;Jeon, Hyeong-Tag
    • Korean Journal of Materials Research
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    • v.8 no.7
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    • pp.621-627
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    • 1998
  • The formation of Co-silicide between Co/Zr bilayer on the amorphous and crystalline Si substrates has been investigated. The films of Zr(50$\AA$) and Co(l50$\AA$) were deposited with e-beam evaporation system and were heattreated with the rapid thermal annealing system at the temperatures between 50$0^{\circ}C$ and 80$0^{\circ}C$ with 10$0^{\circ}C$ increments for 30 seconds. The phase identification of Co-silicide was carried out by XRD and the chemical analysis was examined by AES and RBS. The interface morphologies of Co/Zr bilayer films were investigated by cross sectional TEM and HRTEM. $CoSi_2$ was formed epitaxially on the crystalline Si substrate above $700^{\circ}C$ while polycrystalline $CoSi_2$ was grown on the amorphous Si substrate. The formation temperature of Co-silicide on the amorphous Si substrate was about 100 C lower than that on the crystalline Si. The COzSi phase was not identified on the both Si substrates. The formation temperature of first phase of Co-silicide on ColZr bilayer was higher than that on Co mono layer. CoSizlayer formed on the amorphous Si substrate exhibits better uniformity compared to the CoSiz formed on the crystalline substrate. The sheet resistance of CoSiz layer on crystalline Si was lower than that on the amorphous Si at high temperatures.tures.

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Carbon nanotube field emission display

  • Chil, Won-Bong;Kim, Jong-Min
    • Electrical & Electronic Materials
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    • v.12 no.7
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    • pp.7-11
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    • 1999
  • Fully sealed field emission display in size of 4.5 inch has been fabricated using single-wall carbon nanotubes-organic vehicle com-posite. The fabricated display were fully scalable at low temperature below 415$^{\circ}C$ and CNTs were vertically aligned using paste squeeze and surface rubbing techniques. The turn-on fields of 1V/${\mu}{\textrm}{m}$ and field emis-sion current of 1.5mA at 3V/${\mu}{\textrm}{m}$ (J=90${\mu}{\textrm}{m}$/$\textrm{cm}^2$)were observed. Brightness of 1800cd/$m^2$ at 3.7V/${\mu}{\textrm}{m}$ was observed on the entire area of 4.5-inch panel from the green phosphor-ITO glass. The fluctuation of the current was found to be about 7% over a 4.5-inch cath-ode area. This reliable result enables us to produce large area full-color flat panel dis-play in the near future. Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have attracted much attention because of their unique elec-trical properties and their potential applica-tions [1, 2]. Large aspect ratio of CNTs together with high chemical stability. ther-mal conductivity, and high mechanical strength are advantageous for applications to the field emitter [3]. Several results have been reported on the field emissions from multi-walled nanotubes (MWNTs) and single-walled nanotubes (SWNTs) grown from arc discharge [4, 5]. De Heer et al. have reported the field emission from nan-otubes aligned by the suspension-filtering method. This approach is too difficult to be fully adopted in integration process. Recently, there have been efforts to make applications to field emission devices using nanotubes. Saito et al. demonstrated a car-bon nanotube-based lamp, which was oper-ated at high voltage (10KV) [8]. Aproto-type diode structure was tested by the size of 100mm $\times$ 10mm in vacuum chamber [9]. the difficulties arise from the arrangement of vertically aligned nanotubes after the growth. Recently vertically aligned carbon nanotubes have been synthesized using plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition(CVD) [6, 7]. Yet, control of a large area synthesis is still not easily accessible with such approaches. Here we report integra-tion processes of fully sealed 4.5-inch CNT-field emission displays (FEDs). Low turn-on voltage with high brightness, and stabili-ty clearly demonstrate the potential applica-bility of carbon nanotubes to full color dis-plays in near future. For flat panel display in a large area, car-bon nanotubes-based field emitters were fabricated by using nanotubes-organic vehi-cles. The purified SWNTs, which were syn-thesized by dc arc discharge, were dispersed in iso propyl alcohol, and then mixed with on organic binder. The paste of well-dis-persed carbon nanotubes was squeezed onto the metal-patterned sodalime glass throuhg the metal mesh of 20${\mu}{\textrm}{m}$ in size and subse-quently heat-treated in order to remove the organic binder. The insulating spacers in thickness of 200${\mu}{\textrm}{m}$ are inserted between the lower and upper glasses. The Y\ulcornerO\ulcornerS:Eu, ZnS:Cu, Al, and ZnS:Ag, Cl, phosphors are electrically deposited on the upper glass for red, green, and blue colors, respectively. The typical sizes of each phosphor are 2~3 micron. The assembled structure was sealed in an atmosphere of highly purified Ar gas by means of a glass frit. The display plate was evacuated down to the pressure level of 1$\times$10\ulcorner Torr. Three non-evaporable getters of Ti-Zr-V-Fe were activated during the final heat-exhausting procedure. Finally, the active area of 4.5-inch panel with fully sealed carbon nanotubes was pro-duced. Emission currents were character-ized by the DC-mode and pulse-modulating mode at the voltage up to 800 volts. The brightness of field emission was measured by the Luminance calorimeter (BM-7, Topcon).

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