• Title/Summary/Keyword: 간질환

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Comparison of One-day and Two-day Protocol of $^{11}C$-Acetate and $^{18}F$-FDG Scan in Hepatoma (간암환자에 있어서 $^{11}C$-Acetate와 $^{18}F$-FDG PET/CT 검사의 당일 검사법과 양일 검사법의 비교)

  • Kang, Sin-Chang;Park, Hoon-Hee;Kim, Jung-Yul;Lim, Han-Sang;Kim, Jae-Sam;Lee, Chang-Ho
    • The Korean Journal of Nuclear Medicine Technology
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    • v.14 no.2
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    • pp.3-8
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    • 2010
  • Purpose: $^{11}C$-Acetate PET/CT is useful in detecting lesions that are related to livers in the human body and leads to a sensitivity of 87.3%. On the other hand, $^{18}F$-FDG PET/CT has a sensitivity of 47.3% and it has been reported that if both $^{18}F$-FDG and $^{11}C$-Acetate PET/CT are carried out together, their cumulative sensitivity is around 100%. However, the normal intake of the pancreas and the spleen in $^{11}C$-Acetate PET/CT can influence the $^{18}F$-FDG PET/CT leading to an inaccurate diagnosis. This research was aimed at the verification of the usefulness of how much influence these two radioactive medical supplies can cause on the medical images through comparative analysis between the one-day and two-day protocol. Materials and Methods: This research was carried out based on 46 patients who were diagnosed with liver cancer and have gone through the PET/CT (35 male, 11 female participants, average age: $54{\pm}10.6$ years, age range: 29-69 years). The equipment used for this test was the Biograph TruePoint40 PET/CT (Siemens Medical Systems, USA) and 21 participants who went through the one-day protocol test were first given the $^{11}C$-Acetate PET/CT and the $^{18}F$-FDG PET/CT, the latter exactly after one hour. The other 25 participants who went through the two-day protocol test were given the $^{11}C$-Acetate PET/CT on the first day and the $^{18}F$-FDG PET/CT on the next day. These two groups were then graded comparatively by assigning identical areas of interest of the pancreas and the spleen in the $^{18}F$-FDG images and by measuring the Standard Uptake Value (SUV). SPSS Ver.17 (SPSS Inc., USA) was used for statistical analysis, where statistical significance was found through the unpaired t-test. Results: After analyzing the participants' medical images from each of the two different protocol types, the average${\pm}$standard deviation of the SUV of the pancreas carried out under the two-day protocol were as follows: head $1.62{\pm}0.32$ g/mL, body $1.57{\pm}0.37$ g/mL, tail $1.49{\pm}0.33$ g/mL and the spleen $1.53{\pm}0.28$ g/mL. Whereas, the results for participants carried out under the one-day protocol were as follows: head $1.65{\pm}0.35$ g/mL, body $1.58{\pm}0.27$ g/mL, tail $1.49{\pm}0.28$ g/mL and the spleen $1.66{\pm}0.29$ g/mL. Conclusion: It was found that no statistical significant difference existed between the one-day and two-day protocol SUV in the pancreas and the spleen (p<0.05), and nothing which could be misconceived as false positive were found from the PET/CT medical image analysis. From this research, it was also found that no overestimation of the SUV occurred from the influence of $^{11}C$-Acetate on the $^{18}F$-FDG medical images where those two tests were carried out for one day. This result was supported by the statistical significance of the SUV of measurement. If $^{11}C$-Acetate becomes commercialized in the future, the diagnostic ability of liver diseases can be improved by $^{18}F$-FDG and one-day protocol. It is from this result where tests can be accomplished in one day without the interference phenomenon of the two radioactive medical supplies and furthermore, could reduce the waiting time improving customer satisfaction.

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Implementation of integrated monitoring system for trace and path prediction of infectious disease (전염병의 경로 추적 및 예측을 위한 통합 정보 시스템 구현)

  • Kim, Eungyeong;Lee, Seok;Byun, Young Tae;Lee, Hyuk-Jae;Lee, Taikjin
    • Journal of Internet Computing and Services
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    • v.14 no.5
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    • pp.69-76
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    • 2013
  • The incidence of globally infectious and pathogenic diseases such as H1N1 (swine flu) and Avian Influenza (AI) has recently increased. An infectious disease is a pathogen-caused disease, which can be passed from the infected person to the susceptible host. Pathogens of infectious diseases, which are bacillus, spirochaeta, rickettsia, virus, fungus, and parasite, etc., cause various symptoms such as respiratory disease, gastrointestinal disease, liver disease, and acute febrile illness. They can be spread through various means such as food, water, insect, breathing and contact with other persons. Recently, most countries around the world use a mathematical model to predict and prepare for the spread of infectious diseases. In a modern society, however, infectious diseases are spread in a fast and complicated manner because of rapid development of transportation (both ground and underground). Therefore, we do not have enough time to predict the fast spreading and complicated infectious diseases. Therefore, new system, which can prevent the spread of infectious diseases by predicting its pathway, needs to be developed. In this study, to solve this kind of problem, an integrated monitoring system, which can track and predict the pathway of infectious diseases for its realtime monitoring and control, is developed. This system is implemented based on the conventional mathematical model called by 'Susceptible-Infectious-Recovered (SIR) Model.' The proposed model has characteristics that both inter- and intra-city modes of transportation to express interpersonal contact (i.e., migration flow) are considered. They include the means of transportation such as bus, train, car and airplane. Also, modified real data according to the geographical characteristics of Korea are employed to reflect realistic circumstances of possible disease spreading in Korea. We can predict where and when vaccination needs to be performed by parameters control in this model. The simulation includes several assumptions and scenarios. Using the data of Statistics Korea, five major cities, which are assumed to have the most population migration have been chosen; Seoul, Incheon (Incheon International Airport), Gangneung, Pyeongchang and Wonju. It was assumed that the cities were connected in one network, and infectious disease was spread through denoted transportation methods only. In terms of traffic volume, daily traffic volume was obtained from Korean Statistical Information Service (KOSIS). In addition, the population of each city was acquired from Statistics Korea. Moreover, data on H1N1 (swine flu) were provided by Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, and air transport statistics were obtained from Aeronautical Information Portal System. As mentioned above, daily traffic volume, population statistics, H1N1 (swine flu) and air transport statistics data have been adjusted in consideration of the current conditions in Korea and several realistic assumptions and scenarios. Three scenarios (occurrence of H1N1 in Incheon International Airport, not-vaccinated in all cities and vaccinated in Seoul and Pyeongchang respectively) were simulated, and the number of days taken for the number of the infected to reach its peak and proportion of Infectious (I) were compared. According to the simulation, the number of days was the fastest in Seoul with 37 days and the slowest in Pyeongchang with 43 days when vaccination was not considered. In terms of the proportion of I, Seoul was the highest while Pyeongchang was the lowest. When they were vaccinated in Seoul, the number of days taken for the number of the infected to reach at its peak was the fastest in Seoul with 37 days and the slowest in Pyeongchang with 43 days. In terms of the proportion of I, Gangneung was the highest while Pyeongchang was the lowest. When they were vaccinated in Pyeongchang, the number of days was the fastest in Seoul with 37 days and the slowest in Pyeongchang with 43 days. In terms of the proportion of I, Gangneung was the highest while Pyeongchang was the lowest. Based on the results above, it has been confirmed that H1N1, upon the first occurrence, is proportionally spread by the traffic volume in each city. Because the infection pathway is different by the traffic volume in each city, therefore, it is possible to come up with a preventive measurement against infectious disease by tracking and predicting its pathway through the analysis of traffic volume.

Clinical Aspects of Bacteremia in Medical and Surgical Intensive Care Units (내과 및 외과계 중환자실 환자 균혈증의 임상적 고찰)

  • Kim, Eun-Ok;Lim, Chae-Man;Lee, Jae-Kyoon;Mung, Sung-Jae;Lee, Sang-Do;Koh, Youn-Suck;Kim, Woo-Sung;Kim, Dong-Soon;Kim, Won-Dong;Park, Pyung-Hwan;Choi, Jong-Moo;Pai, Chik-Hyun
    • Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases
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    • v.42 no.4
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    • pp.535-547
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    • 1995
  • Background: Intensive care units(ICUs) probably represent the single largest identifiable source of infection within the hospital. Although there are several studies on ICU infections in respect to their bacteriology or mortality rate for individual types of ICU, few studies have compared ICU infections between different types of ICU. The aim of this study was to identify clinical differences in bacteremia between medical ICU(MICU) and surgical ICU(SICU) patients. Methods: 256 patients with bacteremia were retrospectively evaluated. Medical records were reviewed to obtain the clinical and bacteriologic informations. Results: 1) The mean age of the patients with bacteremia of MICU($58.6{\pm}17.2\;yr$) was greater than that of all MICU patients($54.3{\pm}17.1\;yr$)(p<0.01), but there was no significant difference in SICU patients(patients with bacteremia of SICU: $56.3{\pm}18.6\;yr$, all SICU patients: $62.0{\pm}16.8$)(p>0.05). ICU stay was longer(MICU patients: $23.4{\pm}40.8$ day, SICU patients: $30.3{\pm}26.8$ day) than the mean stay of all patients($6.8{\pm}15.5$ day)(p<0.05, respectively). Bacteremia of both ICU patients developed past the average day of ICU stay(all MICU patients: 7.9 day, all SICU patients: 6.0 day, MICU bacteremia: 19th day, SICU bacteremia: 17th day of ICU stay)(p<0.05, respectively). 2) There were no significant differences in mean age, sex, and length of stay of both ICU patients with bacteremia. 3) Use of antibiotics or steroid, use of percutaneous devices and invasive procedures before development of bacteremia were more frequent in SICU patients than in MICU patients(prior antibiotics use: MICU 45%, SICU 63%, p<0.05; steroid use: MICU 14%, SICU 36%, p<0.01; use of percutaneous devices: MICU 19%, SICU 39%, p<0.01; invasive procedures: MICU 19%, SICU 61 %, p<0.01). 4) The prevalence of community acquired infections was significantly higher in MICU patients than in SICU patients(MICU 42%, SICU 9%)(p<0.01), whereas SICU patients showed higher prevalence of ICU-acquired infection than MICU patients(MICU 48%, SICU 78%)(p<0.01). 5) There were no differences in causative organisms, primary sites of infection and time interval to bacteremia between both ICUs. 6) There were no significant differences in outcome according to pathogenic organisms or primary sites of infection. 7) The mortality rate was higher in patients with bacteremia than without bacteremia(MICU mortality rate: patients with bacteremia 72.5%, patients without bacteremia 36.0%, p<0.01; SICU mortality rate: patients with bacteremia 40.3%, patients without bacteremia 8.5%, p<0.05), and the mortality rate of MICU bacteremia was significantly higher compared with that of SICU bacteremia(MICU 72.5%, SICU 40.3%)(p<0.01). Conclusion: ICU patients with bacteremia stayed longer before the development of bacteremia, and showed higher mortality than the overall ICU population. The incidence of bacteremia was higher in MICU patients than SICU patients. MICU patients with bacteremia showed higher prevalence of liver diseases and acute respiratory failure, community-acquired bacteremia and greater mortality rate than SICU patients with bacteremia. SICU patients with bacteremia, on the other hand, showed higher prevalence of trauma, prior use of immunosuppressive agents, invasive procedures, and ICU-acquired bacteremia, and lower mortality rate than MICU patients with bacteremia.

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The Effect of Anticonvulsants on Serum Copper and Zinc Concentrations (항경련제가 혈청 구리와 아연 농도에 미치는 영향)

  • Jeong, Hee Jeong;Youn, Hye Won;Lee, Keon Su
    • Clinical and Experimental Pediatrics
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    • v.48 no.4
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    • pp.406-410
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    • 2005
  • Purpose : Anticonvulsants have a number of side effects and some of them may be attributed to a disturbance of serum trace metal homeostasis. Although they are minor building components in tissues, they play important functional roles in the peripheral and central nervous system. We measured serum copper and zinc levels in epileptic children who were treated with anticonvulsants to know the effects of anticonvulsants on serum copper and zinc levels. Methods : Serum copper and zinc levels were determined in 64 epileptic patients receiving anticonvulsant therapy in Chungnam National University Hospital, and in 20 normal controls. Sixty-four epileptic patients were divided into three groups : 16 patients who were treated with valproic acid monotherapy; 26 patients who were treated with valproic acid in addition to other anticonvulsants; and 22 patients who were treated with anticonvulsants except for valporic acid. Results : All patients receiving anticonvulsants had significantly lower serum copper levels($80.21{\pm}19.42{\mu}g/dL$) in comparison to the normal controls($102.12{\pm}32.8{\mu}g/dL$). Serum zinc levels in patients receiving anticonvulsants($79.78{\pm}21.88{\mu}g/dL$) were not statistically different from those of controls ($85.26{\pm}29.81{\mu}g/dL$). There were no significant difference of serum copper and zinc levels among the three groups. Conclusion : In this study, we clearly showed that anticonvulsants decreased serum copper levels. Although we did not observe any clinical findings related to copper deficiency, we should pay attention to potent copper deficiency in patients with anticonvulsant treatment.

Metabolizing analysis according to the sawdust media of Pleurotus ostreatus (산겨릅나무와 옻나무 톱밥배지에서 재배한 느타리버섯의 함유성분 분석)

  • Shin, Yu-Su;Yang, Bo-Hyun;Kang, Bo-Yeon;Kim, Hyun-Soo;Lee, Ji-Hyun;Hong, Yoon-Pyo;Lee, Sang-Won;Lee, Chan-Jung;Kim, Seung-Yoo
    • Journal of Mushroom
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    • v.9 no.4
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    • pp.194-197
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    • 2011
  • The transitivity of Chemical constituents by Pleurotus ostreatus cultivated in different raw sawdusts, which are Acer tegmentosum MAX, Rhus verniciflura, was investigated. The HPLC chromatography patterns on the chemical constituents of P. ostreatus showed the similar chromatography patterns in the different raw sawdusts and control sawdust. The unknown chemical constituents of P. ostreatus cultivated in the mixed medium added 10 %, 20% raw sawdusts, respectively, were increased. But the significance results in the mixed medium added 50% raw sawdusts were not showed. The chromatography patterns of mycelia grown in media added the 80% MeOH extracts of A. tegmentosum and R. verniciflura showed the similar patterns in comparison with control mycelia. In the results, the secondary metabolites of functional media were not degrade and changed to other derivatives compounds by P. ostreatus.

Automatic Interpretation of F-18-FDG Brain PET Using Artificial Neural Network: Discrimination of Medial and Lateral Temporal Lobe Epilepsy (인공신경회로망을 이용한 뇌 F-18-FDG PET 자동 해석: 내.외측 측두엽간질의 감별)

  • Lee, Jae-Sung;Lee, Dong-Soo;Kim, Seok-Ki;Park, Kwang-Suk;Lee, Sang-Kun;Chung, June-Key;Lee, Myung-Chul
    • The Korean Journal of Nuclear Medicine
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    • v.38 no.3
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    • pp.233-240
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    • 2004
  • Purpose: We developed a computer-aided classifier using artificial neural network (ANN) to discriminate the cerebral metabolic pattern of medial and lateral temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). Materials and Methods: We studied brain F-18-FDG PET images of 113 epilepsy patients sugically and pathologically proven as medial TLE (left 41, right 42) or lateral TLE (left 14, right 16). PET images were spatially transformed onto a standard template and normalized to the mean counts of cortical regions. Asymmetry indices for predefined 17 mirrored regions to hemispheric midline and those for medial and lateral temporal lobes were used as input features for ANN. ANN classifier was composed of 3 independent multi-layered perceptrons (1 for left/right lateralization and 2 for medial/lateral discrimination) and trained to interpret metabolic patterns and produce one of 4 diagnoses (L/R medial TLE or L/R lateral TLE). Randomly selected 8 images from each group were used to train the ANN classifier and remaining 51 images were used as test sets. The accuracy of the diagnosis with ANN was estimated by averaging the agreement rates of independent 50 trials and compared to that of nuclear medicine experts. Results: The accuracy in lateralization was 89% by the human experts and 90% by the ANN classifier Overall accuracy in localization of epileptogenic zones by the ANN classifier was 69%, which was comparable to that by the human experts (72%). Conclusion: We conclude that ANN classifier performed as well as human experts and could be potentially useful supporting tool for the differential diagnosis of TLE.

A Follow-Up Study after Discontinuation of Antiepileptic Drug Therapy in Children with Well-Controlled Epilepsy : The Factors that Influence Recurrence (항전간제로 조절된 간질 환아에서 약물 중지 후 추적 관찰 - 재발위험인자)

  • Chung, Sa Jun;Chung, Hye Jeon;Choi, Young Mi;Cho, Eu Hyun
    • Clinical and Experimental Pediatrics
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    • v.45 no.12
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    • pp.1559-1570
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    • 2002
  • Purpose : There has been no exact answer to the question of when to discontinue antiepileptic drugs(AEDs) in children with well-controlled epilepsy for a long period. This study is about the risk factors of relapse after withdrawal of AEDs in seizure(Sz)-free patients to show a guideline for discontinuation of AEDs. Methods : One hundred and sixty-nine children were diagnosed as epileptic at the Pediatric Dept. of Kyung-Hee Univ. between 1993 to 1998, in whom AEDs had been withdrawn after at least two years of Sz-free period. Univariate analysis using Kaplan-Meier survival analysis and multivariate analysis using Cox-proportional hazard model were performed for sixteen risk factors. Results : Forty-nine of the 169 patients(28.9%) had recurrence of Szs. The mean follow-up after withdrawal of AEDs was 4.1 years, mean treatment period was 4.1 years, and the mean Sz-free period was 3.3 years. Factors associated with an increased risk of relapse were young age at onset, symptomatic Sz, Sz type in West and Lennox-Gastaut syndrome, neurologic deficit, longer Sz-controlling period, shorter total treatment period, number of AEDs used(more than one drug), age at withdrawal of AEDs, and Sz-free period less than two years in univariate analysis using Kaplan-Meier mothod. From multivariate analysis, the factors indicating a significantly higher relapse risk were pre-treatment period after first Sz attack, Sz-controlling period, Sz-free period, number of AEDs used, neurologic abnormalities. Conclusion : For epileptic children who were Sz-free for more than two years, and were more than six-years-old, the discontinuation of AEDs should be considered positively, according to age of onset, Sz type, age at withdrawal of AEDs, total treatment period, Sz-controlling period, number of AEDs used, etiology, neurologic deficit, and the wishes of the patients and the their parents.

Clinical efficacy and safety of lamotrigine monotherapy in newly diagnosed pediatric patients with epilepsy (간질 환아에서 Lamotrigine 초기 단독 요법의 효능 및 안정성에 대한 연구)

  • Han, Ji-Hye;Oh, Jung-Eun;Kim, Sun-Jun
    • Clinical and Experimental Pediatrics
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    • v.53 no.4
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    • pp.565-570
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    • 2010
  • Purpose : To verify the efficacy and safety of lamotrigine (LTG) monotherapy in newly diagnosed children with epilepsy. Methods : We prospectively enrolled 148 children who had undergone LTG monotherapy at our institution between September 2002 and June 2009. Twenty-nine patients were excluded: 19 due to incomplete data and 10 were lost to follow up. The data of the remaining 119 patients was analyzed. Results : We enrolled 119 pediatric epilepsy patients (aged 2.8-19.3 years; 66 males and 53 females) in this study. Out of 119 patients, 29 (25.2%) had generalized epilepsy and 90 (74.8%) had partial epilepsy. The responses of seizure reduction were as follows: Seizure freedom (no seizure attack for at least 6 months) in 87/111 (78.4%, n=111) patients; partial response (reduced seizure frequency compared to baseline) in 13 (11.7%) patients; and persistent seizure in 11 (9.9%) patients. The seizure freedom rate was in 81.6% in patients with partial seizure (75.9% for complex partial seizure and 90.9% for benign rolandic epilepsy) and 44.8% in patients with generalized epilepsy (30.0% for absence seizure, 35.7% for juvenile myoclonic epilepsy patients, and 100.0% for idiopathic generalized epilepsy patients). Adverse reactions were reported in 17 (14.3%) patients, and 8 patients (6.7%) discontinued LTG because of rash and tic. No patient experienced severe adverse reaction such as Stevens-Johnson syndrome. Conclusion : LTG showed excellent therapeutic response and had few significant adverse effects. Our findings report may contribute in promoting the use of LTG monotherapy in epileptic children.

Predictive value of cobalt chloride solution for hypohidrosis with topiramate (약물 유발 소한증에서 cobalt chloride solution의 임상적 유용성)

  • Lee, Hyuk;Lee, Seung Hyun;Kim, Sun Jun
    • Clinical and Experimental Pediatrics
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    • v.49 no.11
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    • pp.1180-1185
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    • 2006
  • Purpose : The aims of this study were to verify the incidence of hypohidrosis and to determine the predictive value of noninvasive indicator test ($Neurocheck^{TM}$) for sweating after administration of topiramate in newly diagnosed pediatric epileptic patients. Methods : A total of 46 epileptic patients (22 boys; 24 girls) on topiramate treatment were evaluated in this study at the Department of Pediatrics, Chonbuk National University Hospital, from October 2004 to July 2005. We measured sweating functions using a noninvasive sweating test ($Neurocheck^{TM}$) before topiramate medication, and after 3 months when topiramate reached its target dosage. We performed a direct questionnaire survey for the hypohidrosis related symptoms during topiramate treatment. Results : The mean age was $7.8{\pm}3.2year$. The mean dosage of topiramate was $4.5{\pm}0.8mg/kg/day$. Among the patients, there were 40 complex partial seizures, one simple partial seizure, two partial seizures with secondarily generalization, two generalized seizures, and one Lennox-Gastaut syndrome case. Of the 46 epileptic patients, 17 patients (37.0 percent) experienced hypohidrosis and hypohidrosis related symptoms, 12 (26.1 percent) had facial flushing, four (8.7 percent) had heat intolerance, one (2.2 percent) had lethargy, but no one had anhidrosis. Among the 17 patients, the mild group numbered 12 and the severe group totalled five. Hypohidrosis by $Neurocheck^{TM}$ was diagnosed in 16 patients. The overall measures of agreement between $Neurocheck^{TM}$ and the survey was 76.5 percent. The specificity of this test was 89.7 percent. Patients who showed a time delay after medication, especially over 3 minutes, were seen only in the severe group. Conclusion : $Neurocheck^{TM}$ could be clinically useful to detect and predict topiramate induced hypohidrosis in pediatric epileptic patients. We recommend that patients who show a delay over 3 minutes in $Neurocheck^{TM}$ test after topiramate initiation should be monitored for hypohydrosis.