• Title, Summary, Keyword: 강성

Search Result 8,930, Processing Time 0.055 seconds

A review of Deepwater Horizon Oil Budget Calculator for its Application to Korea (딥워터 호라이즌호 유출유 수지분석 모델의 국내 적용성 검토)

  • Kim, Choong-Ki;Oh, Jeong-Hwan;Kang, Seong-Gil
    • Journal of the Korean Society for Marine Environment & Energy
    • /
    • v.19 no.4
    • /
    • pp.322-331
    • /
    • 2016
  • Oil budget calculator identifies the removal pathways of spilled oil by both natural and response methods, and estimates the remaining oil required response activities. A oil budget calculator was newly developed as a response tool for Deepwater Horizon oil spill incident in Gulf of Mexico in 2010 to inform clean up decisions for Incident Comment System, which was also successfully utilized to media and general public promotion of oil spill response activities. This study analyzed the theoretical background of the oil budget calculator and explored its future application to Korea. The oil budge calculation of four catastrophic marine pollution incidents indicates that 3~8% of spilled oil was removed mechanically by skimmers, 1~5% by in-situ burning, 4.8~16% by chemical dispersion due to dispersant operation, and 37~56% by weathering processes such as evaporation, dissolution, and natural dispersion. The results show that in-situ burning and chemical dispersion effectively remove spilled oil more than the mechanical removal by skimming, and natural weathering processes are also very effective to remove spilled oil. To apply the oil budget calculator in Korea, its parameters need to be optimized in response to the seasonal characteristics of marine environment, the characteristics of spilled oil and response technologies. A new algorithm also needs to be developed to estimate the oil budget due to shoreline cleanup activities. An oil budget calculator optimized in Korea can play a critical role in informing decisions for oil spill response activities and communicating spill prevention and response activities with the media and general public.

Trace Metals (Mn, Zn, Cd, Pb) in the Shell of the Marine Gastropod, Littorina brevicula on Coastal Area, Korea (전국 연안의 총알고둥(Littorina brevicula: Gastropod) 패각 중 금속 원소(Mn, Zn, Cd, Pb)의 분포 특성)

  • Lim, Chae-Ryeol;Kang, Seong-Gil;Lee, Chang-Bok;Koh, Chul-Hwan;Choi, Man-Sik
    • The Sea:JOURNAL OF THE KOREAN SOCIETY OF OCEANOGRAPHY
    • /
    • v.5 no.2
    • /
    • pp.119-130
    • /
    • 2000
  • Mn, Zn, Cd and Pb in shells of Littorina brevicula, which lives ubiquitously in intertidal zone around the Korean coast, were analyzed to determine the relationship between metal levels in its shell, ambient seawater and its tissue. Periwinkles and seawater samples were collected from 38 sites along the Korean coast in January 1997. Mn contents in shells of this organism show the range of 7.0 ${\mu}g$/g-211 ${\mu}g$/g (mean 59 ${\mu}g$/g) and are the lowest in northern east coast but high in western south and west coast. Close relationship between Mn contents in shells and metal levels both in seawater and in tissues indicates that Mn in shell might be incorporated from ambient seawater by a biological process. Although the contents of Cd in shells did not reflect the distribution of total Cd in seawaters and they were very low compared to those in tissues, they followed spatial gradient of contents in tissues. However, the spatial distribution of Zn contents in shells accords neither ambient seawater nor tissues, while it is negatively correlated with the contents of Na in shells. This fact suggests that Zn contents might be controlled by salinity of ambient seawater. On the contrary, Zn contents in highly polluted sites near Onsan Bay show generally higher levels than other sites. The contents of Pb show the range of 0.1 ${\mu}g$/g-17.5 ${\mu}g$/g (mean 1.01 ${\mu}g$/g) and the highest in sites near Onsan Bay. Although the spatial distribution of shell Pb does not follow those of tissue, Pb in shells of Littorina brevicula may be controlled both by shell secretion process and by Pb levels in ambient seawater because the contents of Pb in the shell decrease steadily with growth and vary with levels of Pb in ambient seawater.

  • PDF

A Study on the Hydraulic Characteristics of Rashig Super-Ring Random Packing in a Counter-Current Packed Tower (역류식 충전탑에서 Raschig Super-ring Random Packing의 수력학적 특성에 대한 연구)

  • Kang, Sung Jin;Lim, Dong-Ha
    • Clean Technology
    • /
    • v.26 no.2
    • /
    • pp.102-108
    • /
    • 2020
  • In recent years, packed column has been widely used in separation processes, such as absorption, desorption, distillation, and extraction, in the petrochemical, fine chemistry, and environmental industries. Packed column is used as a contacting facility for gas-liquid and liquid-liquid systems filled with random packed materials in the column. Packed column has various advantages such as low pressure drop, economical efficiency, thermally sensitive liquids, easy repairing restoration, and noxious gas treatment. The performance of a packed column is highly dependent on the maintenance of good gas and liquid distribution throughout a packed bed; thus, this is an important consideration in a design of packed column. In this study, hydraulic pressure drop, hold-up as a function of liquid load, and mass transfer in the air, air/water, and air-NH3/water systems were studied to find the geometrical characteristic for raschig super-ring experiment dry pressure drop. Based on the results, design factors and operating conditions to handle noxious gases were obtained. The dry pressure drop of the random packing raschig super-ring was linearly increased as a function of gas capacity factor with various liquid loads in the Air/Water system. This result is lower than that of 35 mm Pall-ring, which is most commonly used in the industrial field. Also, it can be found that the hydraulic pressure drop of raschig super-ring is consistently increased by gas capacity factor with various liquid loads. When gas capacity factor with various liquid loads is increased from 1.855 to 2.323 kg-1/2 m-1/2 S-1, hydraulic pressure drop increases around 17%. Finally, the liquid hold-up related to packing volume, which is a parameter of specific liquid load depending on gas capacity factor, shows consistent increase by around 3.84 kg-1/2 m-1/2 S-1 of the gas capacity factor. However, liquid hold-up significantly increases above it.

A Study of Organic Matter Fraction Method of the Wastewater by using Respirometry and Measurements of VFAs on the Filtered Wastewater and the Non-Filtered Wastewater (여과한 하수와 하수원액의 VFAs 측정과 미생물 호흡률 측정법을 이용한 하수의 유기물 분액 방법에 관한 연구)

  • Kang, Seong-wook;Cho, Wook-sang
    • Journal of the Korea Organic Resources Recycling Association
    • /
    • v.17 no.1
    • /
    • pp.58-72
    • /
    • 2009
  • In this study, the organic matter and biomass was characterized by using respirometry based on ASM No.2d (Activated Sludge Model No.2d). The activated sludge models are based on the ASM No.2d model, published by the IAWQ(International Association on Water Quality) task group on mathematical modeling for design and operation of biological wastewater treatment processes. For this study, OUR(Oxygen Uptake Rate) measurements were made on filtered as well as non-filtered wastewater. Also, GC-FID and LC analysis were applied for the estimation of VFAs(Volatile Fatty Acids) COD(S_A) in slowly bio-degradable soluble substrates of the ASM No.2d. Therefore, this study was intended to clearly identify slowly bio-degradable dissolved materials(S_S) and particulate materials(X_I). In addition, a method capable of determining the accurate time to measure non-biodegradable COD(S_I), by the change of transition graphs in the process of measuring microbial OUR, was presented in this study. Influent fractionation is a critical step in the model calibrations. From the results of respirometry on filtered wastewater, the fraction of fermentable and readily biodegradable organic matter(S_F), fermentation products(S_A), inert soluble matter(S_I), slowly biodegradable matter(X_S) and inert particular matter(X_I) was 33.2%, 14.1%, 6.9%, 34.7%, 5.8%, respectively. The active heterotrophic biomass fraction(X_H) was about 5.3%.

  • PDF

Performance Evaluation of High Strength Lattice Girder by Structural Analyses and Field Measurements (구조해석과 현장계측에 의한 고강도 격자지보재의 성능 평가)

  • Lee, Jeo-Won;Min, Kyong-Nam;Jeong, Ji-Wook;Roh, Byoung-Kuk;Lee, Sang-Jin;Ahn, Tae-Bong;Kang, Seong-Seung
    • The Journal of Engineering Geology
    • /
    • v.30 no.3
    • /
    • pp.237-251
    • /
    • 2020
  • This study examined structural analysis of supports in tunnel and displacement and underground stress of tunnel by measurement, in order to evaluate the performance of high-strength lattice girders developed as a substitute for H-profiles. According to the three-dimensional nonlinear structural analysis results of the tunnel support, the load and displacement relationship between the H-profiles and the high-strength lattice girders showed almost the same behavior, and the maximum load of the high-strength lattice girders were 1.0 to 1.2 times greater than the H-profiles. By the results of the three-dimensional tunnel cross-section analysis of the supports, the axial force was occurred largely in the lower left and right sides of the tunnel, and showed a similar trend to the field test values. In the results of the measurement of the roof settlement and rod extension, the final displacement of the steel arch rib (H-profile) and high-strength lattice girder section in tunnel was converged to a constant value without significant difference within the first management standard of 23.5 mm. According to the results of underground displacement measurement, the final change amount of the two support sections showed a slight displacement change, but converged to a constant value within the first management standard of 10 mm. By the results of measurement of shotcrete stress and steel arch rib stress, the final change amount of the two support sections showed a slight stress change, but converged to a constant value within the first management standard of 81.1 kg/㎠ and 54.2 tonf.

Development of 3D Viewer for Tree Cavity using Pulse Ultrasound (펄스 초음파를 이용한 수목 공동부 3D 구현 프로그램 제작)

  • Son, Jungmin;Kang, Sunghoon;Moon, Jongwook;Yoon, Seokkyu;Park, Jikoon
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Radiology
    • /
    • v.15 no.2
    • /
    • pp.265-271
    • /
    • 2021
  • The pattern of the tree's internal swelling depends on many causes. Since it is difficult to detect these various causes of swelling with a general method, if the state of swelling for a long time cannot be confirmed, serious damage to the trees may occur due to enlargement of the swelling area. In the method of acquiring a tree tomography image, an impulse passing through the tree is generated by tapping the sensor with a rubber mallet, and the moving speed is recorded. In this paper, to measure cracks, cavities, and swelling due to physical damage, we developed a 3D viewer that can know the internal state of a tree using a tree cross-section image acquired from Arbotom to determine the degree of swelling inside the tree. Based on this, we tried to present data that can be referred to when surgical operation of trees is required. In order to acquire a tomographic image of a tree, 6 sensors were attached to the three Yangpala and Maple trees, and a 1 m-long tree was measured using the Arbotom program, and a 3D image was implemented through the 3D Viewer created using MATLAB. In addition to simply acquiring images, the cross-sectional length and volume of the tree were measured. In the actually produced 3D Viewer, the length of the part where the swelling of the maple tree occurred was 33.12 cm, and the swelling of the yangpala tree was measured as 21.41 cm. The volume of the maple tree was measured to be 78.832 ㎤. As a result of comparing the cross-sectional image of the Arbotom and the 3D image, the same result as the real aspect of the tree was obtained, so it can be judged that the reliability of the manufactured software is also secured, and data to be applied to the surgical tree operation through the created Viewer is provided. It is believed that the damage will be minimized.

Determination of the Optimum Sampling Area for the Benthic Community Study of the Songdo Tidal Flat and Youngil Bay Subtidal Sediment (송도 갯벌과 영일만 조하대 저서동물의 군집조사를 위한 적정 채집면적의 결정)

  • Koh, Chul-Hwan;Kang, Seong-Gil;Lee, Chang-Bok
    • The Sea:JOURNAL OF THE KOREAN SOCIETY OF OCEANOGRAPHY
    • /
    • v.4 no.1
    • /
    • pp.63-70
    • /
    • 1999
  • The optimum sampling area which can be applied to the benthic community study is estimated from large survey data in the Songdo tidal flat and subtidal zone of Youngil Bay, Korea. A total of 250 samples by 0.02 $m^2$ box corer for the benthic fauna in Songdo tidal flat and 50 samples by 0.1 $m^2$ van Veen grab in Youngil Bay were taken from the total sampling area of 5 $m^2$. It was assumed that the sampling area could contain sufficient information on sediment fauna, if cumulative number of species, ecological indices, and similarity index by cluster analysis reflect the similarity level of 75% to those found at total sampling area (5 $m^2$). A total of 56 and 60 species occurred from Songdo tidal flat and Youngil Bay, respectively. The cumulative curve of the species number ($N_{sp}$) as a function of the sampling area (A in $m^2$ ) was fitted as $N_{sp}=37.379A^{0.257}$ ($r^2=0.99$) for intertidal fauna and $N_{sp}=40.895A^{0.257}$ ($r^2=0.98$) for subtidal fauna. Based on these curves and 75% of similarity to the total sampling area (5 $m^2$), the optimum sampling area was proposed as 1.6 $m^2$ for the intertidal and 1.5 $m^2$ for the subtidal fauna. Ecological indices (species diversity, richness, evenness and dominance indices) were again calculated on the basis of species composition in differently simulated sample sizes. Changes in ecological indices with these sample sizes indicated that samplings could be done by collecting fauna from < 0.5 $m^2$-1.5 $m^2$ on the Songdo tidal flat and from < 0.5 $m^2$-1.2 $m^2$ in Youngil Bay. Changes in similarity level of all units of each simulated sample size showed that sampling area of 0.3 $m^2$ (Songdo tidal flat) and 0.6 $m^2$ (Youngil Bay) should be taken to obtain a similarity level of 75%. In conclusion, sampling area which was determined by cumulative number of species, ecological indices and similarity index by cluster analysis could be determined as 1.5 $m^2$ (0.02 $m^2$ box corer, n=75) for Songdo tidal flat and 1.2 $m^2$ (0.1 $m^2$ van Veen grab, n=12) for Youngil Bay. If these sampling areas could be covered in the field survey, population densities of seven dominant species comprising 68% of the total faunal abundance occurring on Songdo tidal flat and six species comprising 90% in Youngil Bay can be estimated at the precision level of P=0.2.

  • PDF

The Health Behavior Patterns of Some Rural Residents in Korea and Their Association with Health Status and Health Management Practice (일부 농촌주민의 건강행위유형과 건강상태 및 건강관련실태와의 관련성)

  • Kim, Young-Gab;Kang, Myung-Guen;Ryu, So-Yeon;Kim, Ki-Soon;Kang, Sung-Deuk
    • Journal of agricultural medicine and community health
    • /
    • v.29 no.1
    • /
    • pp.43-63
    • /
    • 2004
  • Objectives: The purpose of this study was to classify the patterns of health behaviors of some rural residents in Korea by sub-grouping them into populations with similar patterns of diet quality, physical activity, alcohol consumption and cigarette smoking, and then to investigate the relationship between these health behavior patterns and health status or health management of them. Methods: The study subjects were 722 rural residents above 20 years old on a typical rural district in Korea, and the data used in this study was from the survey data for health planning of a health center. Study questionnaire for this survey was developed from modifying the questionnaire for 'National Nutrition and Health Study' conducted in 1998. To classify health behavior patterns, cluster analysis was conducted. And to test the association of health behavior patterns with health status or health management, multiple logistic regression analysis were conducted. Results: The results and their implications of this study were as follows: 1. We identified six health behavior typologies : 67.8% of the sample had a good diet quality but showed sedentary activity level(good diet lifestyle) and 10.9% had heavy smoking behavior(smoking lifestyle). Individuals included in fitness lifestyle cluster(6.2%) had high physical activity level and those in drinking life style(2.6%) had had mainly large amount of alcohol. Zero point six percent of sample were included in hedonic lifestyle cluster, who showed poor health behaviors in all. Those included in passive lifestyle(11.9%) had no active health promoting activities but tended to avoid risk taking health behavior such as cigarette smoking and alcohol drinking. 2. As a result of logistic regression analysis, to compare with the individuals in good diet lifestyle, the prevalence of chronic diseases of those in fitness lifestyle showed higher and that of those in smoking lifestyle, drinking lifestyle, hedonic lifestyle, passive lifestyle showed lower than them, retrospectively. 3. Adjusting with general characteristics and health status, to compare with the individuals in good diet lifestyle, the proportion of those who had good health management practices in fitness lifestyle was higher, and the proportion of those who had health check in past 2 years was lower than them, retrospectively. Conclusions: There were some differences in health behavior patterns between rural population and national population, which influenced significantly on health status and health management practice of them. We suggested that the health promotion program for them be developed with considering these points.

  • PDF

An Empirical Study on Perceived Value and Continuous Intention to Use of Smart Phone, and the Moderating Effect of Personal Innovativeness (스마트폰의 지각된 가치와 지속적 사용의도, 그리고 개인 혁신성의 조절효과)

  • Han, Joonhyoung;Kang, Sungbae;Moon, Taesoo
    • Asia pacific journal of information systems
    • /
    • v.23 no.4
    • /
    • pp.53-84
    • /
    • 2013
  • With rapid development of ICT (Information and Communications Technology), new services by the convergence of mobile network and application technology began to appear. Today, smart phone with new ICT convergence network capabilities is exceedingly popular and very useful as a new tool for the development of business opportunities. Previous studies based on Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) suggested critical factors, which should be considered for acquiring new customers and maintaining existing users in smart phone market. However, they had a limitation to focus on technology acceptance, not value based approach. Prior studies on customer's adoption of electronic utilities like smart phone product showed that the antecedents such as the perceived benefit and the perceived sacrifice could explain the causality between what is perceived and what is acquired over diverse contexts. So, this research conceptualizes perceived value as a trade-off between perceived benefit and perceived sacrifice, and we need to research the perceived value to grasp user's continuous intention to use of smart phone. The purpose of this study is to investigate the structured relationship between benefit (quality, usefulness, playfulness) and sacrifice (technicality, cost, security risk) of smart phone users, perceived value, and continuous intention to use. In addition, this study intends to analyze the differences between two subgroups of smart phone users by the degree of personal innovativeness. Personal innovativeness could help us to understand the moderating effect between how perceptions are formed and continuous intention to use smart phone. This study conducted survey through e-mail, direct mail, and interview with smart phone users. Empirical analysis based on 330 respondents was conducted in order to test the hypotheses. First, the result of hypotheses testing showed that perceived usefulness among three factors of perceived benefit has the highest positive impact on perceived value, and then followed by perceived playfulness and perceived quality. Second, the result of hypotheses testing showed that perceived cost among three factors of perceived sacrifice has significantly negative impact on perceived value, however, technicality and security risk have no significant impact on perceived value. Also, the result of hypotheses testing showed that perceived value has significant direct impact on continuous intention to use of smart phone. In this regard, marketing managers of smart phone company should pay more attention to improve task efficiency and performance of smart phone, including rate systems of smart phone. Additionally, to test the moderating effect of personal innovativeness, this research conducted multi-group analysis by the degree of personal innovativeness of smart phone users. In a group with high level of innovativeness, perceived usefulness has the highest positive influence on perceived value than other factors. Instead, the analysis for a group with low level of innovativeness showed that perceived playfulness was the highest positive factor to influence perceived value than others. This result of the group with high level of innovativeness explains that innovators and early adopters are able to cope with higher level of cost and risk, and they expect to develop more positive intentions toward higher performance through the use of an innovation. Also, hedonic behavior in the case of the group with low level of innovativeness aims to provide self-fulfilling value to the users, in contrast to utilitarian perspective, which aims to provide instrumental value to the users. However, with regard to perceived sacrifice, both groups in general showed negative impact on perceived value. Also, the group with high level of innovativeness had less overall negative impact on perceived value compared to the group with low level of innovativeness across all factors. In both group with high level of innovativeness and with low level of innovativeness, perceived cost has the highest negative influence on perceived value than other factors. Instead, the analysis for a group with high level of innovativeness showed that perceived technicality was the positive factor to influence perceived value than others. However, the analysis for a group with low level of innovativeness showed that perceived security risk was the second high negative factor to influence perceived value than others. Unlike previous studies, this study focuses on influencing factors on continuous intention to use of smart phone, rather than considering initial purchase and adoption of smart phone. First, perceived value, which was used to identify user's adoption behavior, has a mediating effect among perceived benefit, perceived sacrifice, and continuous intention to use smart phone. Second, perceived usefulness has the highest positive influence on perceived value, while perceived cost has significant negative influence on perceived value. Third, perceived value, like prior studies, has high level of positive influence on continuous intention to use smart phone. Fourth, in multi-group analysis by the degree of personal innovativeness of smart phone users, perceived usefulness, in a group with high level of innovativeness, has the highest positive influence on perceived value than other factors. Instead, perceived playfulness, in a group with low level of innovativeness, has the highest positive factor to influence perceived value than others. This result shows that early adopters intend to adopt smart phone as a tool to make their job useful, instead market followers intend to adopt smart phone as a tool to make their time enjoyable. In terms of marketing strategy for smart phone company, marketing managers should pay more attention to identify their customers' lifetime value by the phase of smart phone adoption, as well as to understand their behavior intention to accept the risk and uncertainty positively. The academic contribution of this study primarily is to employ the VAM (Value-based Adoption Model) as a conceptual foundation, compared to TAM (Technology Acceptance Model) used widely by previous studies. VAM is useful for understanding continuous intention to use smart phone in comparison with TAM as a new IT utility by individual adoption. Perceived value dominantly influences continuous intention to use smart phone. The results of this study justify our research model adoption on each antecedent of perceived value as a benefit and a sacrifice component. While TAM could be widely used in user acceptance of new technology, it has a limitation to explain the new IT adoption like smart phone, because of customer behavior intention to choose the value of the object. In terms of theoretical approach, this study provides theoretical contribution to the development, design, and marketing of smart phone. The practical contribution of this study is to suggest useful decision alternatives concerned to marketing strategy formulation for acquiring and retaining long-term customers related to smart phone business. Since potential customers are interested in both benefit and sacrifice when evaluating the value of smart phone, marketing managers in smart phone company has to put more effort into creating customer's value of low sacrifice and high benefit so that customers will continuously have higher adoption on smart phone. Especially, this study shows that innovators and early adopters with high level of innovativeness have higher adoption than market followers with low level of innovativeness, in terms of perceived usefulness and perceived cost. To formulate marketing strategy for smart phone diffusion, marketing managers have to pay more attention to identify not only their customers' benefit and sacrifice components but also their customers' lifetime value to adopt smart phone.

Treatment Outcome and Analysis of the Prognostic Factors of Ductal Carcinoma in situ Treated with Breast Conserving Surgery and Radiotherapy (유방 관상피내암의 유방 보존술 후 방사선 치료의 성적과 예후 인자 분석)

  • Kim, Kyoung-Ju;Huh, Seung-Jae;Park, Won;Yang, Jeong-Hyeon;Nam, Seog-Jin;Kim, Jeong-Han;Lee, Sung-Kong;Lee, Jee-Hyun;Kang, Sung-Soo;Lee, Jeong-Eun;Kang, Min-Kyu;Park, Young-Je;Nam, Hee-Rim
    • Radiation Oncology Journal
    • /
    • v.22 no.1
    • /
    • pp.11-16
    • /
    • 2004
  • Purpose: To evaluate the survival rate, local failure rate and patterns of failure, and analyze the prognostic factors affecting local relapse of ductal carcinoma in situ treated with breast conserving surgery and radiotherapy Materials and Methods: From June 1995 to December 2001, 96 patients with ductal carcinoma in situ treated with breast conserving surgery and radiotherapy were retrospectively analyzed. The operations were either local or wide excision in all patients, with an axillary lymph node dissection performed in some patients. Radiation dose to the whole breast was 50.4 Gy, over 5 weeks, with 1.8 Gy daily fractions, with additional doses ($10\~14$ Gy) administered to the primary tumor bed in some patients with close ($\leq$2 mm) or positive resection margin. The median follow-up period was 43 months (range $10\~102$ months). Results: The 5-year local relapse free survival and overall survival rates were 91 and $100\%$ respectively. Local relapse occurred in 6 patients ($6.3\%$). Of the 6 recurrences, one was invasive ductal cell carcinoma. With the exception of one, all patients recurred 2 years after surgery. There was no regional recurrence or distant metastasis. Five patients with local recurrence were salvaged with total mastectomy, and are alive with no evidence of disease. One patient with recurrent invasive ductal cell carcinoma will receive salvage treatment. On analysis of the prognostic factors affecting local relapse, none of the factors among the age, status of resection margin, comedo type and nuclear grade affected local relapse. Operation extent also did not affect local control (p=0.30). In the patients with close resection margin, boost irradiation to the primary tumor bed did not affect local control (p=1.0). Conclusions: The survival rate and local control of the patients with ductal carcinoma in situ treated with breast conserving surgery and radiotherapy were excellent. Close resection margin and boost irradiation to the primary tumor bed did not affect local relapse, but further follow-up with much more patients is needed.